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--  作者:weilai
--  发布时间:2010-8-1 9:09:52
--  A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (9)
LESSON IX.


               LIMITATION OF THE THIRD PERSONAL PRONOUN.

42. Since there is a special reflexive pronoun of the third person, the
third personal pronouns, "li", "shi", "ghi", "ili", when used otherwise
than as subjects, never refer to the subject of the verb, but always to
some other person or thing:

   La knabo laudas lin, the boy praises him (another person).
   Shi donas pomojn al shi, she gives apples to her (to another person).
   La birdo vidis ghin, the bird saw it (something else than the bird).
   La knaboj kashis ilin, the boys hid them (other persons or things).
   Ili trovis ilin apud si,
      they found them (other persons or things) near them(selves).
   La birdoj flugis al ili, the birds flew to them.


                         POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES.

43. Words like "my," "his," "your," which indicate ownership or some
possessive relation, are called "possessive adjectives". Possessive
adjectives are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the adjective
ending "-a", as "mia", my, "via", your ("cia", thy), "lia", his, "shia",
her, "ghia", its, "nia", our, "via", your (plural), "ilia", their. The
limitation in the use of the third personal pronouns ("42") is also true
of the adjectives derived from them:

   Mia domo kaj miaj ghardenoj estas grandaj,
      my house and my gardens are large.
   Johano sidas sur via segho, John is sitting in your chair.
   Li havas lian chevalon, he has his (another person\'s) horse.
   Chu vi legis shiajn librojn? Did you read her books?

[Footnote: Sometimes these words are called possessive pronouns,
although really they are not pronouns at all, but pronominal adjectives
with a possessive meaning.]

44. Reflexive possessive adjectives, like the reflexive pronoun, refer
to the subject of the verb in the sentence. For the first and second
persons, they are the same as the personal possessive adjectives. The
reflexive possessive adjective of the third person is "sia", his, her,
its, their, formed by adding the ending "-a" to the reflexive pronoun
"si":

   Mi havas miajn librojn sur mia tablo, I have my books on my table.
   Johano perdis siajn librojn, John lost his (John\'s) books.
   Mario estas en sia chambro, Mary is in her room.
   La birdoj flugis al sia arbo, the birds flew to their tree.

--  作者:weilai
--  发布时间:2010-8-1 9:10:08
--  
 PRONOMINAL USE OF POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES.

45. Possessive adjectives may be used predicatively, as "the book is
mine," or may modify some word or words not expressed, as "mine are
large." Instead of having special forms, like English "mine", "yours",
"hers", etc., Esperanto uses the regular possessive adjectives preceded
by the article:

   La granda libro estas la mia, the large book is mine.
   La via estas granda, la miaj estas belaj,
      yours is large, mine are beautiful.
   Ili havas la sian, sed ne la lian, they have theirs, but not his.
   La iliaj shajnas esti bonaj, theirs seem to be good.



                               VOCABULARY

   diro = saying, remark.             mangho = meal.
   ghis = as far as, up to, down to.  nesto = nest.
   hierau = yesterday.                pasero = sparrow.
   juna = young.                      patro = father.
   kapti = to catch, to seize.        post, after, behind.
   kato = cat.                        surprizi = to surprise.
   kolera = angry.                    teni = to hold, to keep.
   lavi = to wash.                    vizagho = face.

--  作者:weilai
--  发布时间:2010-8-1 9:10:27
--  
READING LESSON.

1. Hierau mi perdis mian grizan katon. 2. Ilia kato kaptis nian
birdon. 3. Via kolera diro surprizis mian patron. 4. Chu la granda
kampo apartenas al shia patro? 5. Ne, ghi ne estas la lia. 6. La lia
estas bela, sed mi preferas la mian. 7. Chu vi shatas vian libron au
la ilian? 8. Li havas nek siajn chevalojn nek la iliajn. 9. La knabinoj
shajnas esti koleraj. 10. Ili komencis legi siajn librojn. 11. La viro
kaptis kaj tenis siajn chevalojn, sed li ne trovis iliajn chevalojn.
12. Shia libro kushas sur la planko, post shia segho. 13. Shi ne trovis
ilian libron, sed la junaj infanoj trovis la nian.


                         LA KATO KAJ LA PASERO.

Griza kato iris de la domo ghis la strato. Ghi vidis paseron antau si,
kaj volis manghi ghin. La kato staris post granda arbo, kaj kaptis la
paseron. La pasero diris "Bona kato lavas sin antau sia mangho, sed vi
ne lavis vian vizaghon." La interesa diro surprizis la katon. La kato
ne tenis la paseron, sed komencis lavi sian vizaghon. La pasero flugis
de la kato ghis la arbo. La kolera kato diris "Mi perdis mian manghon,
char mi komencis lavi min antau la mangho!" Nun la katoj ne lavas sin
antau la manghoj. Ili havas siajn manghojn, kaj post la manghoj ili
lavas la vizaghojn. La paseroj ne surprizas ilin nun, sed ili tenas la
paserojn. La katoj estas felichaj, sed la paseroj ne estas felichaj. La
junaj paseroj volas flugi al la nestoj en la arboj.


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The boys are not in their (own) house, but they are in his. 2 Is the
large beautiful house yours? 3. The woman walked through the door of
their house, as far as her room. 4. The room has interesting pictures on
its walls. 5. We praised their flowers yesterday, and they gave them to
us. 6. Their books are in their (the books\') box. 7. They are on their
(the boys\') table. 8. The gray cat was angry because it did not hold the
bird. 9. The sparrow surprised it, and it commenced to wash its face.
10. The sparrow wished to fly as far as the tall tree, but the cat held
it. 11. The sparrow said "A good cat washes its face, but you are not a
good cat." 12. The sparrow was angry because the cat seized it and held
it. 13. The bird did not lose its meal, but the angry cat lost its meal.
14. Do you see his cat or hers? 15. I see both his and hers, but ours
is not in our garden. 16. My father is a tall strong man. 17. I like to
look at him. 18. The children saw the young birds in the nest.