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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (51)
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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (51)
LESSON LI.


                       THE PRONOUN "AMBAU".

238. The pronoun (and pronominal adjective) "ambau", both, indicates
two persons or things considered together. It is invariable in form:

   Ili ambau venis al la templo,
      they both came to the temple.
   Ambau faris oferojn al la dioj,
      both made offerings to the gods.
   Vidante kaj la plumon kaj la plumingon, mi prenis la ambau,
      seeing both the pen and the penholder, I took both.

[Footnote: This pronoun must not be confused with the use of "kaj",
translated "both" in the combination "kaj ... kaj ...", "both ... and
..." (26).]


                FORMATIONS WITH "-IG-" AND "-IGH-".

239. Some verbs may be used in the simple form, and also with both the
suffix "-ig-" and the suffix "-igh-". Thus from one verb-root three
verbs of distinct meaning may be made, and the formation with "-ig-",
being transitive, may also be used in the passive:

   sidi = to sit, to be sitting.
      sidighi = to become sitting, to take a seat.
      sidigi = to cause to sit, to seat.
      esti sidigata = to be caused to sit.
   silenti = to be silent.
      silentighi = to become silent.
      silentigi = to cause to be silent, to silence.
      esti silentigita = to be silenced.
   kushi = to lie, to be lying.
      kushighi = to lie down, to go to bed.
      kushigi = to cause to lie, to lay.
      esti kushigita = to be laid.
   stari = to stand, to be standing.
      starighi = to rise, to stand up, to become erect.
      starigi = to raise, to cause to stand up, to erect.
      esti starigita = to be raised, to be erected.
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FACTUAL CONDITIONS.

240. A conditional sentence consists of two parts, an "assumption" and
a "conclusion". The assumption is a clause (introduced usually by the
conjunction "se", "if") which assumes something as true or realized. The
conclusion is a statement whose truth or realization depends upon the
truth or realization of the assumption. "Factual conditions" (conditions
of fact) may deal with the present, past or future time:

   Se li vidas tion, li ploras,
      if he sees that, he weeps (is weeping).
   Se li vidis tion, li ploris,
      if he saw that, he wept.
   Li ploros, se li vidos tion,
      he will weep, if he sees that.
   Se li venis hierau, li foriros morgau,
      if he came yesterday, he will go away tomorrow.
   Se li estas vidinta tion, li nun ploras,
      if he has seen that, he now is weeping.
   Se tio estas vidota, li estas punota,
      if that is going to be seen, he is going to be punished.
   Se li estas kaptita, li estos jam punita,
      if he has been captured, he will already have been punished.


                               VOCABULARY

   ambau = both (238).                mut-a = dumb, mute.
   azen-o = ass, donkey.              orel-o = ear.
   ben-i = to bless.                  petol-a = mischievous.
   dors-o = back.                     propr-a = own, one's own.
   form-o = form.                     se = if.
   halt-i = to stop (intrans.).       spir-i = to breathe.
   monahh-o = monk.                   turment-i = to torment.

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LA MONAHHOJ KAJ LA AZENO.

Iam du monahhoj reiris tra la arbaro al la monahhejo, dum grade
krepuskighis. Ambau portis pezajn sakojn da terpomoj, kaj baldau
lacighis, sed ne sciis kion fari. Okaze ili ekvidis azenon ligitan
al arbo, kaj unu monahho, haltinte, diris petole al la alia "Se vi
anstatauos la beston, mi havos portanton por miaj propraj sakoj, kaj
ankau por la viaj." Lia kunulo respondis "Nu, se la azeno portos miajn
sakojn, mi mem ghoje restos en ghia loko." Jhus dirite, tuj farite ("no
sooner said than done"). Malliginte la ligajhojn kiuj tenis la azenon,
ili jhetis la sakojn trans la dorson de la utila besto. Unu monahho tuj
forkondukis la azenon, dum ambau viroj laute ridis. Post tio, la dua
monahho sin ligis per la sama shnurego kiu antaue tenis la azenon.
Kiam revenis la kamparano, kies azeno estis jhus shtelita, li ekhaltis,
multe mirigite, vidante homon tie ligita. La monahho anoncis al li,
"Char mi estis tro manghema, Dio faris azenon el mi, antau du jaroj. Mi
jhus rericevis mian propran formon." Tuj la kredema kamparano invitis
la petolan monahhon al sia hejmo. La monahho restis tiun nokton che la
kamparano, kaj la sekvintan tagon li foriris, beninte la kamparanon, sed
kashe ridante pri la afero. Tiam la kamparano iris vendejon, por acheti
alian azenon. Li ekvidis sian propran azenon, kiun la unua monahho estis
sendinta tien, post sia reveno al la monahhejo. La malsagha kamparano,
klinighinte al la besto, diris "Ho, bona monahho, mi vidas ke duan fojon
vi jam estis tro manghema!" La muta besto forte svingis la orelojn kaj
skuis la kapon, pro la varma elspirajho apud sia orelo. Tio shajne
estis respondo al la jhus diritaj vortoj, tial la malsagha kamparano
ree achetis sian propran azenon. Chiam poste li nek turmentis nek ech
laborigis ghin, kredante la azenon la sankta monahho mem.


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

ancient times, they usually asked the sacred gods about it. 2. If the
gods informed ("sciigis") them that whatever man would come to the
temple first would become their king, they immediately chose the first
comer ("la unuan veninton") king. 3. Whoever was chosen king made the
blessed gods a thank-offering, which consisted of something out of his
own possessions (227, a). 4. Gordius did not offer to the gods merely
the yoke of his wagon, but the whole wagon. 5. A knot of rope was tied
between the yoke and the pole. 6. People soon began to say, "If any one
soever can untie that knot, he will become ruler of Asia." 7. If any
other men tried to untie that rope, they failed. 8. Alexander, though
("tamen"), had scarcely arrived when he drew (out) his sword from the
scabbard, and cut the knot. 9. If you will take-a-seat, I will tell you
about the two mischievous monks, returning to the monastery. 10. Both
were breathing with difficulty, and stopped to rest. 11. Having noticed
a donkey near by, they untied it. 12. One led the long-eared dumb animal
away, while the other tied himself in its own place. 13. The credulous
(192) peasant believed everything which was told (54) him,
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