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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (54)
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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (54)
LESSON LIV.


                         SUMMARY OF CONDITIONS

249. The three kinds of conditional sentences, together with the moods
and tenses used in them, may be tabulated as follows:

   Name:            Factual     Less Vivid          Contrary to Fact

   Subject Matter:  facts       suppositions        opposite of facts

   Time:            any         (usually) future    present or past

   Mood:            indicative  conditional         conditional

   Tense:           any         (usually) aoristic  (usually) compound


                   CLAUSES OF IMAGINATIVE COMPARISON.

250. Clauses of imaginative comparison are introduced by the conjunction
"kvazau", as though, as if. Sometimes the verb in the comparison may be
left unexpressed or merely implied:

   Li trinkas la venenon kvazau ghi estus vino,
      he drinks the poison as though it were wine.
   La kondamnito marshis kvazau kun malfacileco,
      the condemned man walked as if with difficulty.
   Li konfesis kvazau kulpulo,
      he confessed like a culprit.

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THE USE OF "AL" TO EXPRESS REFERENCE.

251. Personal pronouns, and less frequently nouns, may be used with the
preposition "al" to express "concern" or "interest" on the part of the
person indicated by the complement of this preposition:

   Li bruligis al si la manon, he burned his hand.
   Ili tranchis al li la barbon, they cut his beard (the beard for him).
   Shi preparas al ni bonan manghon, she is preparing us a good meal.
   Chu vi faros servon al mi? Will you do me a service?

[Footnote: The use of "al" in this sense, approaching that of "por" but
less purposeful and definite, resembles the "dative of reference" and
"ethical dative" of other languages, as in French "je me suis brule la
langue", I have burned my tongue, German "ich wasche mir die Haende",
I wash my hands, Latin "sese Caesari ad pedes proicerunt", they threw
themselves at the feet of Caesar, Greek "ti soi mathesomai", what am I
to learn for you? etc.]

252. By an extension of its use in expressing reference, "al" may often
be used in the place of "de" expressing separation (170), when the use
of "de" might seem to indicate agency (169) or possession (49):

   La luno estas kashata al ni de la nuboj,
      the moon is hidden from us (to us) by the clouds.
   Ghi estas stelita al mi de li,
      it has been stolen from me by him.

[Footnote: This use resembles the "dative of separation" of other
languages, as in German "es stahl mir das Leben", it stole the life from
me, French "il me prend la vie", it takes my life, Latin "hunc mihi
timorem eripe", remove this fear from me, Greek "dexato oi skaeptron",
he took his sceptre from him, etc.]
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THE SUFFIX "-ESTR-".

253. The suffix "-estr-" is used to indicate the "chief", "head", or
"one in control" of that which is expressed in the root:

   lernejestro = (school) principal.  urbestro = mayor.
   monahhestro = abbot.               estraro = governing body.
   policestro = chief of police.      shipestro = ship-captain.


                               VOCABULARY

   Aristejd-o = Aristeides.           popol-o = a people.
   ekzil-i = to exile.                pot-o = pot.
   enu-i = to be wearied, bored.      senc-o = meaning, sense.
   ghust-a = exact.                   signif-i = to signify.
   kvazau = as though, as if (250).   son-i = to sound.
   ostr-o = oyster.                   strang-a = strange.
   ostracism-o = ostracism.           shel-o = shell, bark, peel.

[Footnote: Care must be taken to distinguish "ghusta", exact, "ghuste",
exactly, just, from "justa", upright, just, "juste", justly, and also
from the adverb "jhus" just.]

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LA OSTRACISMO DE ARISTEJDO.

La vorto ostracismo havas interesan devenon ("origin"). En ghia komenco
oni rekonas la grekan vorton kiu signifas "shelon de la ostro." En ghia
fino oni vidas la saman "-ismon " kiu, deveninte de la greka, ankorau
estas uzata kiel vortfino en multaj diversaj lingvoj. La nuna senco de
la vorto, facile trovebla en anglaj vortaroj ("dictionaries"), devenas
de la jena greka kutimo:

Sepdek jarojn antau ol vivadis Sokrato, oni faris strangan leghon en
lia urbo. Lau tiu, oni povis ekzili iun ajn estron kies ideoj pri la
administrado de la urbo ne shajnis pravaj. Chi tion oni povis fari,
tute sen jughado au ech akuzado, char oni havis la jenan metodon: se
che popola kunveno ses mil urbanoj vochdonis ("vote") kontrau iun
ajn, tiu estis devigata foriri de la urbo, kaj forresti dek jarojn.
Li povis neniel havigi ("get") al si pardonon, sed devis tuj foriri
kvazau konfesinta kulpulo. Por vochdonoj, oni skribis la nomon de la
kondamnoto sur peco da potajho ("pottery"), au pli ofte sur ostroshelo.
Ghuste tial oni nomas la kutimon ostracismo. Unufoje, kelkaj malamikoj
proponis vochdonadon pri la ostracismo de tre bona kaj nobla viro,
nomita Aristejdo, kiu tute ne meritis tian punadon.

Antau ol la kunveno disighis, kamparano alproksimighis al Aristejdo
(kiu mem cheestis), petante lian helpon, char la neinstruita kamparano
ne povis skribi. La saghulo diris "Kion vi volas skribi sur la shelo?"
La kamparano, ne sciante ke li parolas al la viro mem, respondis
"Aristejdon." Skribinte ghin, Aristejdo demandis kun trankvila
konscienco "Pro ghuste kiaj pekoj vi malamas Aristejdon?" La kamparano
respondis, "Ho, mi ne kashos al vi ke mi ech ne konas lin! Sed mi
deziras ekzili lin nur char min enuigas la sono de lia nomo. Mi tre
enuas chiam audante lin nomata Aristejdo la justa!"

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SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Aristeides had just arrived at the popular assembly when a peasant
approached him. 2. If Aristeides had not had a pleasant countenance
and musical ("belsonan") voice, doubtless the peasant would not have
asked his help. 3. Ought Aristeides to have written his own name on the
oyster-shell or piece of pottery which was going to be used as a vote
against him? 4. Without just (exactly) this help, the peasant could
not have voted. 5. Doing him the service requested, Aristeides said,
as if ("250") he himself were not the man under-discussion ("205"),
"Why do you hate Aristeides? 6. Could you tell me how he has sinned
against the city?" 7. The silly-creature ("132") replied, "Oh, I know
nothing about him, but I am weary [of] always hearing him called the
just." 8. Ought such persons as that ignorant peasant have-the-right
to vote about important affairs? 9. The ancient law about ostracism
was a strange [one]. 10. The name of the person to-be-exiled ("199")
was usually written upon an oyster-shell, and the meaning of the word
signifying the custom comes from that. 11. Through ("per") ostracism,
any leader could be banished, justly or unjustly, without trial of any
kind, or explanation of the reasons.
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