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A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (2)
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A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (2)
LESSON II.


                                 NOUNS.

10. Words which are the names of persons or things are called nouns.
The ending, or final letter, of nouns in Esperanto is "o":

   knabo = boy.                       pomo = apple.
   chevalo = horse.                   tablo = table.


                              THE ARTICLE.

11. The definite article is "la", the, as "la knabo", the boy, "la
chevalo", the horse, "la tablo", the table, "la pomo", the apple. In
English there is an indefinite article "a, an" for the singular, but
none for the plural. Esperanto has no indefinite article for either
singular or plural. Therefore "knabo" may mean "boy", or "a boy", "pomo"
may mean "apple" or "an apple".


                               ADJECTIVES

12. A word used with a noun (expressed or understood) to express
a quality or characteristic is called an adjective. The ending of
adjectives in Esperanto is "a":

   bela = beautiful.                  granda = large.
   flava = yellow.                    forta = strong.
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ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES.

13. An adjective is said to modify a noun whose quality it expresses.
When directly preceding or following its noun, it is called an
attributive adjective:

   la granda chevalo = the large horse.
   bela birdo = a beautiful bird.
   floro flava = a yellow flower.
   forta knabo = a strong boy.


                       PRESENT TENSE OF THE VERB.

14. Words which express action or condition are called verbs. When
representing an act or condition as a fact, and dealing with the present
time, they are said to be in the present tense. The ending of all
Esperanto verbs in the present tense is "-as":

   kuras = runs, is running.          brilas = shines, is shining.
   flugas = flies, is flying.         dormas = sleeps, is sleeping.

15. The person or thing whose action or condition the verb expresses is
called the subject of the verb:

   La suno brilas, the sun shines (is shining), subject: suno.
   Knabo kuras, a boy runs (is running), subject: knabo.
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VOCABULARY.

        (To be memorized in this and in all following lessons.)

   bela = beautiful.                  kaj = and.
   birdo = bird.                      kantas = sings, is singing.
   blanka = white.                    knabo = boy.
   bona = good.                       kuras = runs, is running.
   brilas = shines, is shining.       la = the.
   chevalo = horse.                   luno = moon.
   dormas = sleeps, is sleeping.      marshas = walks, is walking.
   flava = yellow.                    pomo = apple.
   floro = flower.                    suno = sun.
   flugas = flies, is flying.         tablo = table.
   forta = strong,                    violo = violet.
   granda = large.                    viro = man.


                            READING LESSON.

1. Bona viro. 2. La granda tablo. 3. Blanka floro. 4. Flava birdo. 5. La
bela birdo kantas. 6. Forta knabo kuras. 7. La bona viro marshas. 8. La
bela chevalo kuras. 9. La suno brilas. 10. Birdo flugas kaj knabo kuras.
11. Chevalo blanka marshas. 12. La bela luno brilas. 13. La knabo kantas
kaj la viro dormas. 14. Bela granda pomo. 15. La bona knabo kantas. 16.
La granda chevalo dormas. 17. La suno brilas kaj la luno brilas. 18.
Granda forta tablo. 19. Violo flava. 20. La bona flava pomo.


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. A beautiful flower. 2. A good large table. 3. A yellow violet and
a white violet. 4. The moon is-shining (shines). 5. The good boy
is-walking (walks). 6. The beautiful yellow bird is-flying (flies).
7. The strong man is-sleeping (sleeps). 8. The white bird is-singing
(sings). 9. A strong horse runs, and a man walks. 10. The sun shines,
and the boy is-singing (sings). 11. The large yellow apple. 12. An apple
large and good.

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