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A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (10)
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A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (10)

LESSON X.


                      THE ACCUSATIVE OF DIRECTION.

46. When the verb in a sentence expresses motion, the word indicating
the place, person or thing toward which the motion is directed is given
the accusative ending. This is also true if the word is the complement
of any preposition which does not itself sufficiently indicate motion
in a certain direction. (The prepositions "al", to, toward, "ghis",
as far as, "tra", through, express motion in the direction of their
complements, and could not well be used except in a sentence whose verb
expresses motion. Consequently the accusative is not used after any of
these three):

   Li iris ghardenon, he went to the garden ("gardenward").
   La viro iros Bostonon, the man will go to Boston ("Bostonward").

[Footnote: Cf. English "he went home," "he went homeward," etc.]

   Li estis en la ghardeno, kaj kuris en la domon,
      he was in the garden and ran into the house.
   Ghi ne estas sur la tablo, ghi falis sur la plankon,
      it is not on the table, it fell upon the floor.
   Ili falis sub la tablon ghis la planko,
      they fell under the table as far as the floor
      (direction expressed by whole prepositional phrase).
   Mi iris tra la domo en mian chambron,
      I went through the house into my room.


               THE ARTICLE FOR THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE.

47. In many sentences where the possessor is already sufficiently
indicated, English nevertheless uses a possessive adjective, as in "I
wash my face," "he shakes his head," but on the other hand omits it
entirely with certain words indicating relationship, as in "Brother gave
it to me," etc. In both cases Esperanto uses the article instead of the
possessive adjective, unless the fact of possession is to be emphasized:

   Mi lavas la vizaghon, I wash my face.
   Li skuas la kapon, he shakes his head.
   La patro estas alta, Father is tall.
   Mi donis ghin al la patro, I gave it to Father.

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APPOSITION.

48. English often uses the preposition "of" between two words where
no idea of possession really exists, as "the city of Boston." Since
nouns used in apposition refer to the same thing, and are in the same
grammatical construction, Esperanto does not use a preposition:

   La urbo Bostono estas granda, the city (of) Boston is large.
   Mia amiko Johano estas alta, my friend John is tall.
   Chu vi ne konas min, vian amikon? do you not know me, your friend?


                               VOCABULARY

   arabo = arab.                      meti = to put, to place.
   baldau = soon.                     nazo = nose.
   Bostono = Boston.                  nur = only, merely.
   frato = brother.                   pushi = to push.
   kamelo = camel.                    trans = across.
   kapo = head.                       tuta = whole, entire, all.
   kolo = neck.                       urbo = city.
   korpo = body.                      varma = warm.
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LA ARABO KAJ LA KAMELO.

Arabo sidis en sia domo en la urbo. Apud domo trans la strato li vidis
kamelon. La kamelo iris trans la straton ghis la pordo, kaj diris al la
arabo, "Frato, mi ne estas varma, mi volas meti nur la nazon en vian
varman domon." La arabo skuis la kapon, sed la kamelo metis la nazon tra
la pordo en la chambron. La kamelo komencis pushi sian tutan vizaghon
en la domon. Baldau li havis la kapon ghis la kolo en la domo. Post la
kapo iris la kolo en ghin, kaj baldau la tuta korpo estis en la domo.
La arabo estis kolera, char li ne volis havi tutan kamelon en sia domo.
Li kuris al la kamelo, kaptis lin, tenis lin, kaj diris, "Frato, vi
volis meti nur la nazon en mian domon. La chambro ne estas granda sed
ghi estas la mia, kaj mi preferas sidi en ghi." "Via diro estas bona,"
diris la kamelo, "via domo ne estas granda, sed ghi estas varma, kaj mi
shatas stari en ghi. Mi preferas stari kaj kushi en ghi, kaj mi donos
al vi mian arbon trans la strato. Chu vi ne volas iri sub la arbon?"
Kaj la kamelo pushis la arabon de lia domo en la straton de la urbo. La
kamelo nun trovis sin en varma chambro, sed la juna arabo staris trans
la strato kaj ne estis varma.


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The cat ran across the street. 2. Across the street it found a
sparrow. 3. It caught the bird, but began to wash its face, and the
sparrow flew to the nest. 4. I went into the garden as far as the large
tree. 5. I did not hold my book, and it fell upon the floor. 6. It began
to fall under the table, but I seized it. 7. My brother pushed the
books into their box, and put it on the table. 8. We went to the city
of Boston yesterday and into a beautiful house. 9. The arab shook his
head and said, "No." 10. But the camel commenced to go through the door.
11. His remark did not seem to surprise the camel. 12. The camel pushed
its head and neck, and soon its whole body into the warm house. 13. It
wished to put merely its nose into it. 14. The arab was angry, because
it pushed itself into his house. 15. He said, "Brother, the house is
mine, and I do not wish to have you in it." 16. But soon after the
remark, the whole camel was in the house. 17. He pushed the young arab
into the street. 18. He went across the street and stood upon the grass
under a tree.
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