THE ACCUSATIVE OF DIRECTION.
46. When the verb in a sentence expresses motion, the word indicating
the place, person or thing toward which the motion is directed is given
the accusative ending. This is also true if the word is the complement
of any preposition which does not itself sufficiently indicate motion
in a certain direction. (The prepositions "al", to, toward, "ghis",
as far as, "tra", through, express motion in the direction of their
complements, and could not well be used except in a sentence whose verb
expresses motion. Consequently the accusative is not used after any of
Li iris ghardenon, he went to the garden ("gardenward").
La viro iros Bostonon, the man will go to Boston ("Bostonward").
[Footnote: Cf. English "he went home," "he went homeward," etc.]
Li estis en la ghardeno, kaj kuris en la domon,
he was in the garden and ran into the house.
Ghi ne estas sur la tablo, ghi falis sur la plankon,
it is not on the table, it fell upon the floor.
Ili falis sub la tablon ghis la planko,
they fell under the table as far as the floor
(direction expressed by whole prepositional phrase).
Mi iris tra la domo en mian chambron,
I went through the house into my room.
THE ARTICLE FOR THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE.
47. In many sentences where the possessor is already sufficiently
indicated, English nevertheless uses a possessive adjective, as in "I
wash my face," "he shakes his head," but on the other hand omits it
entirely with certain words indicating relationship, as in "Brother gave
it to me," etc. In both cases Esperanto uses the article instead of the
possessive adjective, unless the fact of possession is to be emphasized:
Mi lavas la vizaghon, I wash my face.
Li skuas la kapon, he shakes his head.
La patro estas alta, Father is tall.
Mi donis ghin al la patro, I gave it to Father.