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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (25)
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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (25)
LESSON XXV.


                      THE INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVE.

112. The interrogative adjective related to the interrogative pronoun
"kiu", is "kia", what kind of, what sort of:

   Kiajn vestojn li portis? What sort of clothes did he wear?
   Kian panon vi preferas? What kind of bread do you prefer?
   Mi miras kia persono li estas. I wonder what sort of a person he is.
   Kia vetero estas? What sort of weather is it?
   Kia plezuro! What a pleasure!


                          THE IMPERFECT TENSE.

113. The compound tense formed by using the present active participle
with the past tense of "esti" represents an act or condition as in
progress in past time, but not perfected, and is called the "imperfect
tense". The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows:

   mi estis vidanta. I was seeing.
   vi estis vidanta. you were seeing.
   li (shi, ghi) estis vidanta. he (she, it) was seeing.
   ni estis vidantaj. we were seeing.
   vi estis vidantaj. you were seeing.
   ili estis vidantaj. they were seeing.
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THE PROGRESSIVE FUTURE TENSE.

114. The compound tense formed by using the present active participle
with the future tense of "esti" represents an act or condition as in
progress--or a condition as existing continuously--at a future time, and
is called the "progressive future" tense. The conjugation of "vidi" in
this tense is as follows:

   mi estos vidanta. I shall be seeing.
   vi estos vidanta. you will be seeing.
   li (shi, ghi) estos vidanta. he (she, it) will be seeing.
   ni estos vidantaj. we shall be seeing.
   vi estos vidantaj. you will be seeing.
   ili estos vidantaj. they will be seeing.


                     SALUTATIONS AND EXCLAMATIONS.

exclamation may be regarded as the direct object of a verb which is not
expressed; these words are put in the accusative

   Bonan matenon! Good morning! (I wish you "good morning.")
   Bonan nokton! Good night! (I wish you a "good night.")
   Multajn salutojn al via patro!
      (I send) many greetings to your father!
   Dankon! Thanks! (I give to you "thanks.")
   Chielon! Heavens! (I invoke the "heavens.")


                            WORD FORMATION.

116. The majority of roots have such a meaning that at least two kinds
of words, and often three or four, may be formed from them by use of
the general endings for verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs. (Each
root will hereafter be quoted but once in the vocabularies, with a
hyphen separating it from the ending with which it appears first in the
reading lesson, or with which it is most frequently used.) Following are
examples of word formation from roots already familiar:

VERB.         NOUN.                ADJECTIVE.           ADVERB.

brili         brilo                brila                 brile
   to shine      shine, brilliance    shining, brilliant    brilliantly

flori         floro                flora                 flore
   to bloom      flower, blossom      floral                florally

ghoji         ghojo                ghoja                 ghoje
   to rejoice    joy, gladness        joyful, glad          gladly

kontuzi       kontuzo
   to bruise     bruise, contusion

              tuto                 tuta                  tute
                 whole                entire, whole, all    entirely

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"KONI" AND "SCII".

117. The verb "koni", which means "to know" in the sense of "to be
acquainted with" is used in speaking of persons, languages, places, etc.
"Koni" always has a direct object. It is never followed by "ke", "chu",
"kiu", or any other interrogative word. "Scii" means "to know" in the
sense of "to be aware," "to have knowledge." It is not used in speaking
of persons.

[Footnote: "Koni" is equivalent to German "kennen", French "connaitre",
Spanish "conocer", while "scii" is equivalent to German "wissen", French
"savoir", Spanish "saber".]

   Chu vi konas tiun personon? Do you know that person?
   Mi scias ke li estas nia najbaro. I know that he is our neighbor.
   Mi bone konas Bostonon. I am well acquainted with Boston.
   Mi ne scias chu li konas ilin. I do not know whether he knows them.


                               VOCABULARY

   av-o = grandfather.                kia = what kind of (112).
   buked-o = bouquet.                 lingv-o = language.
   ekzamen-o = examination.           nep-o = grandson.
   ferm-i = to close.                 nu! Well!
   frap-i = to strike, to knock.      paper-o = paper.
   geometri-o = geometry.             salut-i = to greet.
   german-a = German.                 sci-i = to know (117).
   hejm-o = home.                     stud-i = to study.
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LA NEPO VIZITAS LA AVINON.

Hierau matene mi vizitis la avinon. Shia hejmo estas apud la granda
nova bakejo. Mi vidis shin tra la fenestro, char la kurtenoj kovrantaj
ghin estas tre maldikaj. Shi estis sidanta sur la kanapo, kaj skribanta
per plumo sur granda papero. Antau ol frapi sur la pordo mi vokis shin
kaj diris "Bonan matenon, kara avino!" Tuj shi demandis "Kiu estas tie?
Kies vochon mi audas?" Mi respondis "Estas via nepo. Chu vi ne konas
mian vochon?" Antau ol shi povis veni al la pordo mi estis malfermanta
ghin. Mi iris en la salonon kaj donis al la avino bukedon da floroj.
"La patrino donas chi tiujn al vi, kun siaj plej bonaj salutoj," mi
diris. La avino respondis "Nu, kia plezuro! Multan dankon al shi pro la
bela bukedo, kaj ankau al vi, char vi portis ghin chi tien por mi!"
Dum shi estis metanta la florojn en glason da akvo la avino diris "Nu,
kiajn lecionojn vi havis hodiau en la lernejo?" Mi respondis ke mi
bone konis la lecionojn, char mi zorge studis ilin. "Ni estas lernantaj
la germanan lingvon," mi diris, "kaj ju pli longe ni studas ghin, des
pli multe mi ghin shatas, kvankam ghi estas tre malfacila." Mi rakontis
ankau pri la lecionoj de geometrio, kaj aliaj lecionoj, sed diris ke la
ekzamenoj estos baldau komencantaj. "Je tiu tempo," mi diris, "mi estos
skribanta la respondojn al la ekzamenoj, preskau la tutan semajnon."
La avino demandis kun intereso "Chu la demandoj de la ekzamenoj estos
malfacilaj?" Mi respondis "Mi ne scias, sed mi timas ke ni estos tre
lacaj post tiom da laboro." Post kelke da aliaj demandoj kaj respondoj,
mi opiniis ke estas la horo por foriri. Dum mi estis foriranta, la avino
diris "Multajn salutojn al la tuta familio!" Mi dankis shin, diris
"Bonan tagon!" kaj tiam foriris.


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. What sort of noise do I hear outside the door? 2. Are some of my
friends knocking? 3. We were talking yesterday about the examinations in
our school, and these boys came home to study with me. 4. I shall go to
the door to open it and to greet my friends. 5. Good morning! Did you
come to study geometry, or the German language? 6. Which of these is
usually more difficult, and in which will the examination be the longer?
7. Well, we brought our German books, because we prefer to study these.
8. We wish to know this language thoroughly. 9. We shall go into the
writing-room (111), for (83) some friends of my grandmother are in the
parlor. 10. We can hear their voices here, and we can not study very
well while they are talking. 11. They were carrying many flowers, and
gave a beautiful bouquet to my grandmother. 12. She said "Many thanks
for (86) the sweet violets! In whose garden did they bloom?" 13. Her
friend's granddaughter is a friend of my youngest sister. 14. Well,
shall we begin to study? Have you enough paper, and have you a good pen?
15. I shall close this other door, because they are baking bread in the
kitchen, and cooking meat. 16. We shall be hearing the voices of so many
persons that I know that we can not study.

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