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世界语学习论坛世界语学习讨论区语法问题讨论 Diskutado pri gramatikaj punktoj → A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (52)

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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (52)
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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (52)
 LESSON LII.


                         THE CONDITIONAL MOOD.

241. That indication of the speaker's frame of mind which is given by
the form of the verb is called the "mood" of the verb. All verbs given
so far have been in the "indicative mood", which represents an act or
state as a reality or fact, or in the "infinitive mood", which expresses
the verbal idea in a general way, resembling that of a substantive.
The "conditional mood" does not indicate whether or not the act or
state mentioned is a fact, but merely expresses the speaker's idea of
its likelihood or certainty, or is used in an assumption or conclusion
dealing with suppositions, not with actual facts. The ending of the
conditional mood is "-us". The conjugation of "vidi" in the aoristic
tense of the conditional mood is as follows:

   mi vidus, I should see.
   vi vidus, you would see.
   li (shi, ghi) vidus, he (she, it) would see.
   ni vidus, we should see.
   vi vidus, you would see.
   ili vidus, they would see.


                COMPOUND TENSES OF THE CONDITIONAL MOOD.

242. In addition to the aoristic tense, the conditional mood has three
active and three passive compound tenses, formed by combining the
participles with the aoristic tense of "esti" in the conditional mood. A
synopsis of "vidi" in these compound tenses is as follows:

                             Active Voice.

   Present:  mi estus vidanta,  I should be seeing.
   Past:     mi estus vidinta,  I should have seen.
   Future:   mi estus vidonta,  I should be about to see.

                             Passive Voice.

   Present:  mi estus vidata,   I should be seen.
   Past:     mi estus vidita,   I should have been seen.
   Future:   mi estus vidota,   I should be about to be seen.
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 LESS VIVID CONDITIONS.

243. A conditional sentence dealing with "suppositions" concerning
events in present or future time is called a "less vivid condition"
("Less vivid", in contrast to factual conditions (240), which are
"vivid", because they deal with facts.), and the conditional mood
is used in both the assumption and the conclusion:

   Se li vidus tion, li plorus,
      if he should see that, he would weep.
   Mi ghoje helpus vin, se mi povus,
      I would gladly help you, if I could.
   Se vi metus ilin sur la dorson de la azeno, ghi portus ilin,
      if you should put them on the donkey's back, it would carry them.
   La petola junulo turmentus la monahhon, se li revenus,
      the mischievous youth would torment the monk, if he should return.
   Se li estus kaptata, li estus punata,
      if he should be caught, he would be punished.


                INDEPENDENT USE OF THE CONDITIONAL MOOD.

244. The conditional mood may be used in a conclusion whose assumption
is merely implied, serving thus to soften or make vague the statement or
question in which it is used:

   Mi ghoje helpus vin, I would gladly help you.
   Chu vi bonvole dirus al mi? Would you kindly tell me?
   Kiu volus enspiri tian aeron? Who would wish to inhale such air?
   Estus bone reteni vian propran, it would be well to keep your own.
   La chielo vin benus pro tio, Heaven would bless you for that.

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THE PREFIX "DIS-".

245. The prefix "dis-" indicates separation or movement in several
different directions at once:

   disdoni = to distribute.           disighi = to separate (intrans.).
   dispeli = to dispel.               disigho = separation, schism.
   disigi = to separate (trans.).     dissendi = to send around.

[Footnote: Cf. the English prefix "dis-" in "disperse", "disseminate",
"distribute," etc.]


                               VOCABULARY

   ches-i = to cease, to leave off.   kauz-i = to cause.
   dens-a = dense.                    legh-o = law.
   difin-i = to define.               natur-o = nature.
   ekzist-i = to exist.               objekt-o = object.
   flu-i = to flow.                   plu = further, more.
   gravit-i = to gravitate.           turn-i = to turn (trans.).

[Footnote: The adverb "plu" gives an idea of continuance to the word
which it modifies. When used with "ne", the two together give an idea of
cessation concerning a previous continuous act or state: "Ambau parolos
plu morgau", both will talk further tomorrow. "Mi ne plu haltos", I
shall not stop (any) more. "Li ne plu shajnis muta", he no longer seemed
mute.]
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 PRI LA GRAVITADO.

1. Ofte oni parolas pri la pezeco de diversaj objektoj. Tia pezeco estas
kauzata de la forto kiun oni nomas la gravitado. Pro tiu forto ne nur
objektoj sur la tero, sed ankau la tero mem, havas konatan pezecon,
kiun la kleruloj jam antau longe kalkulis. La suno kaj la luno simile
havas pezecon, char ili ambau, same kiel la tero, movighas lau tiu
sama gravitado kiu efektive regas chiujn el la chielaj korpoj. Se la
gravitado chesus ekzisti, la riveroj ne plu fluus antauen en siaj
fluejoj ("beds"). Ne fluante de altaj ghis malaltaj lokoj, la akvo
disfluus, au restus tie, kie ajn ghi okaze estus. Neniom da pluvo
falus; kontraue, la malsekajho en la aero ankorau restus tie, en la
formo de densaj mallumaj chiamaj nuboj. Chiuj vivaj estajhoj ("beings"),
chiuj konstruajhoj, efektive chio, baldau disflugus de la rapide
turnighanta mondo. Chiuj chi ("all these") nun devas resti sur la tero,
tial ke la gravitado restigas ilin chi tie. Se la gravitado ne plu
ekzistus, nenio restus plu sur la tero. La aero mem ne plu chirkauus
nin, sed ghi ankau forlasus la mondon, tuj maldensighinte ("having
become rarefied"). La fama angla filozofo Newton estis la unua, kiu
studadis la kialon ("reason") de la falado de objektoj. Li komencis,
lau la rakonto, per okaza ekrigardo al falantaj pomoj en sia propra
pomarbejo. Antau tri jarcentoj, li eltrovis ke estas tia forto kia la
gravitado, kaj difinis la naturajn leghojn lau kiuj la gravitado sin
montras. Chi tiu forto, kiu restigas chion sur la tero, estas tamen
la kauzo de nia lacighado, kiam ni marshas au kuras, char ghi faras
nin pezaj, kaj tial ni ofte deziras halti kaj ripozi. Estas ankau la
malfacileco en la superado de tiu sama forto, kiu faras tiel malfacila
la konstruadon de utilaj aershipoj.


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Newton was an Englishman who lived three centuries ago. 2. One day he
was walking in his orchard, and, noticing the falling apples, he stood
still ("ekhaltis") and began to wonder why they fall. 3. He studied the
cause of their falling, wishing to discover whatever laws of nature he
could. 4. He watched various falling objects, and tried to calculate
their velocity ("rapideco"). 5. Finally he recognized that force which
is called gravitation. 6. Of course ("kompreneble") gravitation had
always existed, but its laws were not noticed or clearly defined until
Newton studied the matter. 7. If gravitation should not exist any more,
no rain would fall, but instead of condensing, the moisture would remain
above our heads in eternal clouds. 8. But gradually the moisture and
the air itself, becoming rarefied, would fly away from the earth, being
held no longer by the force of gravitation. 9. The water in the rivers
would leave off flowing (cease to flow) on toward the sea, because now
the water flows from high to low places only on account of gravitation.
10. Instead of gravitating toward the sea, in fact, the water would flow
in every direction (245) out of the riverbeds, or would remain there,
without moving at all ("tute ne movante"). 11. Nothing on earth would
remain here very long, but everything would fly off the quickly moving
world, and leave it entirely bare. Soon, also, the earth itself would
break-into-pieces (245).
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