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世界语学习论坛世界语学习讨论区语法问题讨论 Diskutado pri gramatikaj punktoj → A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (56)

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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (56)
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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (56)
 LESSON LVI.


                 THE IMPERATIVE IN SUBORDINATE CLAUSES.

259. The imperative mood is used in a subordinate clause, with a meaning
similar to that in its independent use, after a main verb expressing
"command", "exhortation", "resolve", "consent", "wish", etc., or after
any word or general expression of "command", "intention", "necessity",
"expedience", etc. Such clauses are introduced by the conjunction ke:

                        Command and Prohibition.

   Li diras ke vi iru, he says that you are to go.
   Shi skribis al li ke li venu, she wrote him to come.
   Mi malpermesas ke vi restu, I forbid you to remain.
   Ni ordonos ke li estu punata, we shall order that he be punished.

                           Request and Wish.

   Mi petas ke vi ne lasu min, I beg that you do not leave me.
   Mi petegas ke vi estu trankvilaj, I implore you to be calm.
   Li deziras ke ili estu sklavigitaj, he desires that they be enslaved.
   Ni volis ke li ne forgesu tion, we wished him not to forget that.
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Advice, Consent, Permission.

   Mi konsilis al li ke li iru, I advised him to go.
   Mi konsentis ke li restu, I consented that he remain.
   Ili permesos ke la barbaroj forkuru,
      they will permit the barbarians to escape
      (that the barbarians escape).

                               Questions.

   Li demandas chu ili foriru, he inquires whether they are to go away.
   Oni demandis chu lia moshto eniru,
      they asked whether his honor was to enter.
   Mi miras chu mi faru tion, I wonder whether I am to do that.

                 Intention, Expedience, Necessity, etc.

   Ni intencas ke vi estu helpata,
      we intend that you shall be helped.
   Lia propono estas ke ni ricevu la duonon,
      his proposal is, that we receive the half.
   Lia lasta ordono estis, ke vi venu,
      his last order was that you come.
   Estos bone ke vi ne plu nomu lin,
      it will be well for you not to (that you do not)
      mention him any more.
   Estas dezirinde ke ni havu bonan imperiestron,
      it is desirable that we have a good emperor.
   Estis necese ke chiu starighu,
      it was necessary for everyone to rise.
   Plachos al li ke vi iru,
      he will be pleased to have you go.

[Footnote: In English and some other languages an imperative idea may
often be expressed by the infinitive, as "I wish you to go," but in
Esperanto this must be expressed by the equivalent of "I wish that you
go." The infinitive may not be used except when it can itself be the
subject of the verb in such general statements as "it is necessary to
go."]


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THE PREPOSITION "JE".

260. Since prepositional uses are not exactly alike in any two
languages, it is not always possible to translate a preposition of
one language by what is its equivalent in some senses in another. In
order to insure some means of translating correctly into Esperanto any
prepositional phrase of the national languages, the preposition "je"
is regarded as of rather indefinite meaning. In addition to its use in
dates and allusions to time (89, 185), it may be employed when no other
preposition gives the exact sense required, especially in protestations
and exclamations, expressions of measure (see also 139), and of
indefinite connection:

   Je la nomo de chielo! In the name of Heaven!
   Je mia honoro mi ja elfaros tion!
      On my honor I will accomplish that!
   Ghi estas longa je du mejloj,
      it is two miles long (long by two miles).
   Ili venis je grandaj nombroj, they came in great numbers.
   Li estas tenata de la policano, je la brako, per forta shnurego,
      he is held by the policemen, by the arm, with (by) a strong rope.

The preposition "je" is used to express indefinite connection after
the following words (other prepositions sometimes used are given in
parentheses):

   ekkrii je (pro), to cry out at.    (sin) okupi je, busy (oneself) at.
   enui je, to be bored with.         plena je (de), full of.
   fiera je (pri), proud of.          preni je, to take by.
   fidi je (al), to rely upon.        provizi je (per), to provide with.
   ghoji je (pri), to rejoice at.     richigi je (per), to enrich with.
   gratuli je (pri), congratulate on. ridi je, to laugh at.
   honti je (pri), to be ashamed of.  satighi je, to be sated with.
   inda je, worthy of.                senigi je, to deprive of.
   interesighi je, take interest in.  simila je (al), similar to.
   kapti je, to seize by.             sopiri je (al), to yearn for.
   kontenta je (kun), content with.   sharghi je, to load with.
   kredi je, to believe in.           teni je, to hold by.

[Footnote: The translation given for a preposition in any dictionary is
the general one which serves in the majority of cases. The finer shades
of meaning and real or apparent exceptions can merely be touched upon if
mentioned at all.]
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THE SUFFIX "-OP-".

261. The suffix "-op-" is used to form "collective" numerals:

   duope = by twos, in pairs.     milope = by thousands.
   kvarope = by fours.            sesopigi = to form into groups of six.


                               VOCABULARY

   cel-i = to aim.                    prokrast-i = to delay (trans.).
   Cirus-o = Cyrus.                   proviz-i = to provide.
   fidi = to rely.                    rezult-i = to result.
   ghu-i = to enjoy.                  sopir-i = to yearn, to sigh.
   honor-o = honor.                   spac-o = space.
   krom = beside, save, but.          terur-a = terrible.
   plen-a = full.                     ver-o = truth.
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LA MARSHADO DE LA DEKMIL GREKOJ.

Iam Ciruso, nepo de Ciruso Granda, sopiris je la imperio de sia pli
maljunafrato, kiu sekvis la patron de ambau fratoj kiel regho, au
pli ghuste imperiestro. Decidinte forigi de la regheco ("to dethrone")
sian fraton, Ciruso petis la grekojn ke ili partoprenu ("take part") en
kelkaj negravaj militadoj. Multaj tiamaj grekoj tre volonte sin okupis
je la batalado, pro la granda pago ricevata. La venditaj sklavoj kaj la
detruitaj konstruajhoj chiam provizis ilin je multe da richajho, kaj
krom tio la militistoj shajnis ghui ech la militadon mem. Estis tute
indiferente al ili chu la kauzo de la militado estas prava kaj justa
au ne. Unue Ciruso nur petis ke ili helpu liajn proprajn soldatojn
kontrau iuj najbaroj. Li kashis al ili sian veran celon, char se la
grekoj estus suspektintaj tion, kion li intencis fari, ili neniam estus
akompanintaj lin tiel malproksimen de sia patrolando. Grade li kondukis
ilin trans tutan Azion, kaj fine la dekmil grekoj komprenis chion, kaj
treege kolerighis. Paroladante al ili, Ciruso tuj diris "Mi ne permesas
ke vi reiru, kaj mi petegas ke vi antauen marshadu kun mi, sen plua
("further") prokrasto! Se mi sukcesos kontrau mia frato, mi certigas
vin je mia honoro ke chiu el vi revenos havante sakojn plenajn je
richajho! Estas nur necese ke vi fidu je mi, kaj chio estos bona!" Tiam
la soldatoj hontis je sia antaua timo, kaj kuraghe antauen marshadis.
Fine, apud granda urbo, la frato de Ciruso elvenis havante okcentmil
soldatojn, por batali kontrau la centmil de Ciruso. Per la helpo de
siaj grekoj, Ciruso estis preskau venkinta en terura batalo, kiam
subite li ekvidis sian fraton, je malgranda interspaco. Ekkriante "Mi
vidas la viron!" li rajdis rekte al la regho, jhetante sian pezan lancon
al li. La sola rezulto estis la morto de Ciruso mem, char la amikoj de
la regho, kvinope kaj sesope atakinte Ciruson, lin tuj mortigis.


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Cyrus did not desire that his brother should remain king. 2. He
decided, "Let me myself become ("farighi") king! I should much enjoy
that!" 3. So he asked the Greeks to help him in some battles against
nearby enemies. 4. Gradually an army (126) of a hundred thousand men,
ten thousand of whom were Greeks, gathered (232, b) around him. 5. He
led them farther and farther, into the middle of Asia, until finally the
Greeks suspected his true aim. 6. They said to each other in terror, "He
did not at first propose that we fight against the Great King. Let us
return home without delay!" 7. Cyrus addressed (218) them as follows:
"Must I permit you to go back? I implore you to be courageous, and I
do advise you not to forget your longing for (260) honor! 8. Only be
worthy of your leader, and rely upon me! Do you not wish to return home
provided with wealth, beside the money which I shall pay to you?" 9.
Immediately the soldiers were ashamed of their fear, and advanced by
hundreds, full of courage. 10. Soon the brother of Cyrus approached,
with ("havante") eight hundred thousand men. 11. By the aid of the
Greeks, Cyrus won the battle, but he himself lost his life. 12. So
neither he nor the Greeks could enjoy the result of their efforts.

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