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A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (1)
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A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (1)
*       *       *       *       *


                         A COMPLETE GRAMMAR OF
                               ESPERANTO.


                   *       *       *       *       *



                               LESSON I.


                               ALPHABET.

1. The Esperanto alphabet contains the following letters: a, b, c, ch,
d, e, f, g, gh, h, hh, i, j, jh, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, sh, t, u, u,
v, z.


                                VOWELS.

2. The vowels of the alphabet are pronounced as follows:

"a" as in "far".

"e" as in "fiance", like "a" in "fate".

[Footnote: This "long a" sound in English frequently ends with a
vanish,--a brief terminal sound of "short i" which makes the vowel
slightly diphthongal, as in "day", "aye". Such a vanish must
not be given to any of the Esperanto vowels.]

"i" as in "machine".

"o" as in "toll", "for".

"u" as in "rude", "rural".


                              CONSONANTS.

3. The consonants "b", "d", "f", "h", "k", "l", "m", "n", "p", "t",
"v", "z", are pronounced as in English, and the remaining eleven as
follows:

"c" like "ts" in "hats", "tsetse".

"ch" like "ch" in "chin", "much".

"g" like "g" in "go", "big".

"gh" like "g" in "gem", "j" in "jar".

"hh" is produced by expelling the breath forcibly, with the throat only
partially open.

[Footnote: As in pronouncing German and Scotch "ch", Spanish "j", Irish
"gh", Russian "x", Classical Greek Greek: "chi" etc. There are only a
few words containing this consonant.]

"j" like "y" in "yes", "beyond".

"jh" like "z" in "azure", "s" in "visual".

"r" is slightly trilled or rolled.

"s" like "s" in "see", "basis".

"sh" like "sh" in "shine", "rash", "ch" in machine".

"u" like "w" or consonantal "u". See Diphthongs, 5.
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 NAMES OF THE LETTERS.

4. The vowels are named by their sounds, as given in (2). The names
of the consonants are "bo", "co", "cho", "do", "fo", "go", "gho",
"ho", "hho", "jo", "jho", "ko", "lo", "mo", "no", "po", "ro", "so",
"sho", "to", "uo", "vo", "zo". These are used in speaking of the
letters, in pronouncing them in abbreviations, as "ko to po" for
"k. t. p." (= etc.), and in spelling words, as "bo, i, ro, do, o,
birdo".


                              DIPHTHONGS.

5. Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered as a single
sound, by one breath-impulse. The diphthongs in Esperanto contain an
i or u sound as the second element, but in order to avoid confusion
with combinations of vowels not forming diphthongs (as in "naiva", like
English "naive", etc.), they are written with "j" and "u" instead.
Their pronunciation is as follows:

"aj" like "ai" in "aisle".

"ej" like "ei" in "vein", "ey" in "they".

"oj" like "oi" in "coin", "oy" in "boy".

"uj" like "ui" in "ruin", "u(e)y" in "gluey".

"eu" like "ayw" in "wayward", or like E(h)oo" pronounced together.

"au" like "ou" in "out", "ow" in "owl".


                      COMBINATIONS OF CONSONANTS.

6. Each consonant, in a combination of two or more consonants, is
pronounced with its full value, whether within a word or at its
beginning. There are no silent letters.

a. Thus, both consonants are clearly sounded in the groups "kn", "kv",
"gv", "sv", in such words as "knabo", "kvin", "gvidi", "sviso".

b. The combination "kz", as in "ekzisti", "ekzameno", must not be
modified to the "gs" or "ks" represented by "x" in "exist", "execute".

c. The combination "sc", as in "escepte", "scias", is equivalent to the
combination "sts" in "laST Said", "firST Song", pronounced together
rapidly. The "s" in a word beginning with "sc" may be sounded with the
end of the preceding word, if that word ends in a vowel, as "mis-cias"
for "mi scias".

d. The "n" and "g" are pronounced separately in the combination "ng", in
such words as "lingvo", "angulo", producing the sound of "ng" heard in
"linger", not that in "singer".

e. Each of two similar letters is clearly sounded, as "interrilato",
"ellasi", like "inter-relate", "well-laid".


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 SYLLABLES.

7. Each word contains as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs.
The division of syllables within a word is as follows:

a. A single consonant goes with the following vowel, as "pa-no",
"be-la", "a-e-ro".

b. A consonant followed by "l" or "r" (which are liquids) goes with the
"l" or "r", as in "ta-blo", "a-kra", "a-gra-bla".

c. Otherwise, the syllable division is made before the last consonant of
the group, as "sus-pek-ti", "sank-ta", "deks-tra".

d. Prefixes are separated from the words to which they are attached,
as "dis-meti", "mal-akra", and compound words are divided into their
component parts, as "chef-urbo", "sun-ombrelo".


                                ACCENT.

8. Words of more than one syllable are accented upon the syllable before
the last, as "TA-blo", "a-GRA-bla", "sus-PEK-ti".


                          WORDS FOR PRACTICE.

9. (To be pronounced aloud, and correctly accented) Afero, trairi,
najbaro, aero, hodiau, pacienco, centono, chielo, ech, samideano,
treege, obei, obeu, Europo, gvidi, ghojo, chiujn, justa, ghuste, jughi,
jhaudo, lingvo, knabo, largha, pagi, kvieteco, ekzemplo, ellerni, fojo,
krajono, forrajdi, kuirejo, chevalejo, sankteco, scio, nescio, edzo,
meze, duobla, shipo, sharghi, posho, svingi, sklavo, palaj, shafajho,
atmosfero, monahho, geometrio, laudi, vasta, eksplodi, senchesa,
sensencajho, malluma, arbaranoj, mangho, fresha, auskulti, dauri.
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