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世界语学习论坛世界语学习讨论区语法问题讨论 Diskutado pri gramatikaj punktoj → A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (8)

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A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (8)
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A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (8)
LESSON VIII.


                          REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.

38. A pronoun which refers to the same person or thing as the subject
of the verb in the sentence, but is used in some other relation than
subject of that verb, is said to be used "reflexively", or to be a
"reflexive pronoun".


39. The first and second personal pronouns, "mi", "ni", and "vi",
("ci") are used for the reflexive pronouns of the first and second
persons. There can be no ambiguity, since words such as "me, myself,
us, ourselves," can refer to no one else than the person or persons
speaking; while words such as "you, yourself, yourselves (thee,
thyself)," can refer to no one else than the person or persons
addressed:

   Mi vidas min, I see myself.
   Mi diris al mi, I said to myself.
   Ni havas tapishon sub ni, we have a carpet under us.
   Ni amuzis nin, we amused ourselves.
   (Ci trovas domon apud ci, thou findest a house near thee.)
   Vi diras al vi, you say to yourself (yourselves).
   Vi amuzas vin, you amuse yourself (yourselves).

40. When the verb is in the third person, a pronoun of the third person,
used otherwise than as the subject, might or might not refer to the
subject of that verb. For example, "He sees a bird near him," may mean
that the subject sees a bird near himself, or near another person.
If such a pronoun of the third person is intended to refer to the
subject of the verb, Esperanto uses a special reflexive pronoun "si"
(accusative "sin"), which means "him(self)", "her(self)", "it(self)",
"them(selves)", according to the gender and number of the verb:

   Li amuzas sin, he amuses himself.
   Arturo vidis birdon apud si, Arthur saw a bird near him(self).
   Shi trovas floron apud si, she finds a flower near her(self).
   Mario trovis sin sur blua tapisho,
      Mary found herself on a blue carpet.
   La tapisho havas diversajn kolorojn en si,
      the carpet has various colors in it(self).
   La birdo kashas sin sub la folioj,
      the bird hides itself under the leaves.
   Ili amuzas sin, they amuse themselves.
   La viroj havas seghojn apud si,
      the men have chairs near them(selves).
   La virinoj trovas florojn apud si,
      the women find flowers near them(selves).
   La arboj havas cherizojn sur si,
      the trees have cherries on them(selves).
   Sub si la infanoj trovis molan tapishon,
      under them(selves) the children found a soft carpet.

[Footnote: From the very fact that "si" always refers to the subject of
the verb, it is evident that "si" can never itself be used as subject or
part of the subject of the verb.]

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REFLEXIVE VERBS.

41. A verb having a reflexive pronoun for its direct object is sometimes
called a "reflexive verb", from the fact that some languages have had or
still have a special reflexive or middle form of the verb, to express an
act of the subject on or for itself, or they have certain verbs whose
use is chiefly or exclusively reflexive. The conjugation of a verb
reflexively is therefore as follows:

   mi amuzas min (mi min amuzas), I amuse myself.
   vi amuzas vin (vi vin amuzas), you amuse yourself.
   li (shi, ghi) amuzas sin (sin amuzas),
      he (she, it) amuses him (her, it)self.
   ni amuzas nin (ni nin amuzas), we amuse ourselves.
   vi amuzas vin (vi vin amuzas), you amuse yourselves.
   ili amuzas sin (ili sin amuzas), they amuse themselves.

[Footnote: As Greek "etraponto", they turned themselves; Latin
"exerceor", I exercise myself, "vescor", I eat (I feed myself); German
"ich huete mich", I beware (I guard myself); Spanish "me alegro", or
"alegrome", I rejoice (I gladden myself); French "il s'arrete", he halts
(he stops himself).]

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VOCABULARY

   Alfredo = Alfred.                  komenci = to begin.
   amuzi = to amuse.                  laudi = to praise.
   antau = before, in front of.       legi = to read.
   aparteni = to belong.              libro = book.
   griza = gray.                      perdi = to lose.
   iri = to go.                       skatolo = small box or case.
   Johano = John.                     strato = street.
   kashi = to hide, to conceal.       si = himself, etc. (40).


                            READING LESSON.

1. Johano kaj Alfredo amuzis sin en la ghardeno. 2. Johano kashis sin,
kaj Alfredo trovis Johanon. 3. Alfredo sin kashis en alta arbo, kaj
Johano trovis Alberton. 4. Mario kaj Gertrudo sin kashis apud la floroj,
kaj la knaboj trovis la knabinojn. 5. La knabinoj ne volas perdi sin en
la agrabla kampo. 6. Johano komencis amuzi sin en luma chambro en la
domo. 7. La muro havas interesajn bildojn sur si. 8. Tra la fenestro
antau si Johano rigardas la virojn kaj la virinojn sur la strato. 9.
Li havas molan grizan tapishon sub si, kaj ne volas seghon. 10. Li kaj
Alfredo volis iri al la strato kaj amuzi sin. 11. Ili marshis al la
pordo, kaj trovis rughan skatolon antau si. 12. En la skatolo estis
libro, kaj Johano diris al si "La libro ne apartenas al mi." 13. Li
diris al Alfredo "Char ni trovis ghin, mi volas legi la libron." 14.
Virino antau pordo komencis rigardi la knabojn, kaj ili diris al shi
"Chu la libro apartenas al vi? Ni trovis ghin en skatolo." 15. La virino
diris "Jes, ni perdis ghin, kaj mi dankas vin, char vi donas al mi la
skatolon kaj la libron." 16. Shi iris al la strato, kaj la knaboj iris
al la domo.


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The book in the gray box does not belong to me. 2. I found it in
front of me, near the door. 3. You began to praise yourselves, but I do
not praise myself. 4. They hid themselves, and I stood near them. 5. The
birds sit on the tree, because it has ripe cherries on it. 6. Alfred
amused himself on the street, but we like to amuse ourselves in the
house. 7. The trees have good fruit on them. 8. She found herself in a
beautiful light room. 9. The carpet on the floor had various colors in
it, and the high wall had pictures on it. 10. The pictures had boys and
girls in them. 11. The book belongs to her, but it fell from the box.
12. The table has red and blue and yellow flowers on it. 13. Did you see
the doves near the flowers in front of (before) you? 14. The birds saw
the fruit on the tree in front of them, and flew to the branches. 15. I
sat on the bench in the garden, and began to read an interesting book.
16. They hid themselves in the leaves and began to sing. 17. The child
is in a pleasant room.
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