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A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (12)
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A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (12)
LESSON XII.


                          INDIRECT STATEMENTS.

53. A statement made indirectly by means of a clause dependent upon a
verb meaning "say," "think," "know," "believe," or a similar expression,
as in "I know that he came," "I hear that he is good," is called an
"indirect statement." (The "direct" statement is "he came," "he is
good.") An indirect statement is joined to the main verb or sentence by
the subordinating conjunction "ke," that.

   Johano diras ke vi venis hierau,
      John says that you came yesterday.
   Shi opinias ke estas mono en la sako,
      she thinks that there is money in the bag.

[Footnote: A clause is a group of words including a verb, which is
dependent upon or subordinate to a main verb or sentence, as "--that he
came," "--when he went," "--that he is good," etc.]

[Footnote: In English the subordinating conjunction may sometimes be
omitted, either "I think that he is good," or "I think he is good,"
being usually permissible. But in Esperanto there is no variation, and
the conjunction "ke" is never omitted.]


                 THE INDEFINITE PERSONAL PRONOUN "ONI".

54. When an indefinite personal pronoun is desired, as in the
expressions "one knows," "they say," "people say," "you can see," etc.,
the indefinite personal pronoun "oni" is used. This pronoun may also be
used in translating such expressions as "it is said," "I am told," etc.:

   Oni diras ke li estas richa, they say (one says) that he is rich.
   Oni vidas ke ili estas amikoj, one sees that they are friends.
   Mi opinias ke oni shatas lin,
      I think that people like him (that he is liked).
   Oni diris al mi ke estas sablo en la dezerto,
      I was told (people said to me) that there is sand in the desert.
   Oni opinias ke shi estas felicha,
      it is thought (one thinks) that she is happy.
   Chu oni vidis nin en la ghardeno?
      Were we seen (did people see us) in the garden?
   Oni shatas agrablajn infanojn,
      people like agreeable children (agreeable children are liked).

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 THE FUTURE TENSE.

55. The future tense of the verb expresses an act or state as about to
take place, or as one that will take place in future time. The ending of
this tense is "-os," as "kuros," will run, "flugos," will fly, "brilos,"
will shine. The conjugation of "esti" and also of "vidi" in the future
tense is as follows:

   mi estos = I shall be.             mi vidos = I shall see.
   vi estos = you will be.            vi vidos = you will see.
   li (shi, ghi) estos =              li (shi, ghi) vidos :
      he (she, it) will be.              he (she, it) will see.
   ni estos = we shall be.            ni vidos = we shall see.
   vi estos = you (plural) will be.   vi vidos = you (plural) will see.
   ili estos = they will be.          ili vidos = they will see.


                               VOCABULARY

   audi = to hear.                    oni = (see 54).
   blovi = to blow.                   opinii = to think, to opine.
   greno = grain (wheat, corn, etc.). orienta = east, eastern.
   ke = that (conjunction).           pluvo = rain.
   kontrau = against.                 suda = south, southern.
   montri = to show, to point out.    velki = to wilt, to wither.
   norda = north, northern.           vento = wind.
   nova = new.                        ventoflago = weathercock.
   okcidenta = west, western.         vetero = weather.
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LA VENTOFLAGO.

Estis varma vetero, la suno brilis, kaj suda vento blovis. Tamen la
nova ventoflago sur la domo diris al si, "La sudan venton mi ne shatas.
Mi preferas orientan venton." La vento orienta audis la diron kaj ghi
venis kontrau la ventoflagon. Pluvis kaj pluvis, kaj oni estis kolera
kontrau la ventoflago, char ghi montras orientan venton. Ghi diris,
"Pluvas nun, sed la greno en la kampoj bezonos sekan veteron. Oni estos
kolera kontrau mi, char mi montras orientan venton." La okcidenta vento
audis la ventoflagon, kaj baldau venis. Ghi ne estis forta, sed ghi
estis seka kaj agrabla vento, kaj ne portis pluvon. La viroj, virinoj,
kaj junaj infanoj volis trinki, sed ili ne havis akvon. La greno kaj la
floroj velkis, kaj la frukto ankau falis. La nova ventoflago diris,
"Oni estos kolera kontrau mi, char ne pluvas. Oni opinios ke, char mi
montras okcidentan venton, la frukto falas, kaj la greno kaj floroj
velkas. Mi shatas montri nek okcidentan nek orientan venton!" Norda
vento audis kaj venis al la ventoflago. La vetero ne estis agrabla,
kaj la virinoj kaj la junaj infanoj ne estis varmaj. Neghis, kaj oni
estis kolera. Oni diris "La greno kaj la frukto bezonas varman veteron,
sed hodiau neghas. Ni preferas la sudan venton. Ni havis ghin, antau
la orienta, la okcidenta, kaj la norda ventoj. La ventoflago ne estas
fidela amiko al ni. Ghi ne montras bonajn ventojn, kaj ni volas rompi
ghin!" Oni kuris al la domo, kaptis la novan ventoflagon, kaj ankau
rompis ghin. Ghi falis, kaj kushis sur la vojo antau la domo.


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. One can see that the weathercock points-out the winds. 2. They say
that the west wind will be a dry wind. 3. The weathercock now shows that
an agreeable south wind blows. 4. People will be angry with (against)
the weathercock, because it points-out a north wind. 5. A north wind is
not warm, and the grain and fruit will need a warm wind. 6. It snowed,
and the young children were not warm, because the north wind blew. 7.
People will like a south wind, but an east wind will carry rain. 8.
Can one find money in the desert? 9. Do you think (that) he is in the
house? 10. He is said to be (they say that he is) on the street. 11.
It is thought (people think) that the camel is a faithful friend. 12.
I am told (people tell me) that the camel has a large body, and a long
neck. 13. One can see that it is not beautiful. 14. People do not like
to drink warm water. 15. Nevertheless we shall drink warm water in the
city. 16. It was beautiful weather yesterday, but today we shall have
good weather also. 17. I think that a warm wind will blow soon. 18. My
friend has a beautiful new house.

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