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A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (14)
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A Complete Grammar fo Esperanto (14)
LESSON XIV.


                THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN "CHI TIU".

60. The demonstrative pronoun (and pronominal adjective) meaning "this"
is formed by using with "tiu" (56) the word "chi", which expresses the
general idea of nearness or proximity. (Consequently the literal meaning
of "chi tiu" is "that one nearby", "that one here".) The word "chi" may
either precede or follow the pronoun:

   Chi tiu estas la mia, this is mine.
   Mi vidis chi tiun, I saw this one.
   Chu vi volas tiujn chi? Do you wish these?
   Chi tiu knabino estas mia fratino, this girl is my sister.
   Mi vidis chi tiujn chapelojn, I saw these hats.
   Chi tiuj amikoj promenos, these friends will take a walk.

61. The words "tiu" and "chi tiu" may be used to distinguish between
persons or things "previously" mentioned and "just" mentioned:

   Gertrude kaj Mario estas en la parko.
   Tiu rigardas la florojn, chi tiu kolektas ilin.

   Gertrude and Mary are in the park.
   The former (that one) looks at the flowers,
   the latter (this one) gathers them.


             POSSESSIVE FORM OF THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN.

62. To express possession, the demonstrative pronouns "tiu" and "chi
tiu" have the special possessive or genitive forms "ties", that one's,
and "chi ties", this one's. The use of "ties" and "chi ties" to mean
"the former" and "the latter" is similar to the use of "tiu" and "chi
tiu" shown in 61:


   Mi iris al ties domo, I went to that one's house.
   Chi ties filoj estas junaj,
      this person's (this one's) sons are young.
   Mi shatas ties koloron, sed preferas chi tiun floron,
      I like that one's color, but prefer this flower.
   La patro kaj lia amiko parolas pri siaj domoj.
   Ties estas nova, sed chi ties shajnas bela.
      Father and his friend are talking about their houses.
      The former's is new, but the latter's seems beautiful.

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 THE SUFFIX "-IL-".

63. Names of instruments, tools or utensils may be formed by adding
the suffix "-il-" (followed by the ending "-o") to roots whose meaning
permits:

   flugilo, wing (from flugi, to fly).
   kaptilo, snare, trap (from kapti, to catch).
   kudrilo, needle (from kudri, to sew).
   montrilo, indicator, (clock) hand (from montri, to point out, show).
   tenilo, handle (from teni, to hold).

[Footnote: The root of a word is that part of it which contains the
essential meaning, and to which the verb endings "-i", "-as", "-is",
"-os", the noun ending "-o", the adjective ending "-a", etc., are
attached, when no suffix intervenes. Thus, "vir-" is the root of "viro"
and of "virino"; "kur-" is the root of "kuri", etc.]


              THE EXPRESSION OF MEANS OR INSTRUMENTALITY.

64. The means or instrumentality through which an act is accomplished is
expressed by use of the preposition "per":

   Oni kudras per kudrilo, one sews by means of (with) a needle.
   La birdoj flugas per flugiloj, the birds fly by (with) wings.
   Li amuzas sin per tiuj bildoj,
      he amuses himself with (by) those pictures.
   Mi trovis ghin per via helpo, I found it by (through) your help.


                               VOCABULARY

   busho = mouth.                     per = by means of (64).
   dekstra = right (not left).        supo = soup.
   chi (see 60).                      telero = plate.
   forko = fork.                      terpomo = potato.
   helpo = help.                      ties = that one's (62).
   kafo = coffee.                     tranchi = to cut.
   kulero = spoon.                    tre = very, exceedingly.
   mano = hand.                       viando = meat.
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LA MANGHO.

Hierau mi miris chu mi havos bonan manghon en la domo de mia amiko. Sed
mi opiniis ke mi havos tre bonan manghon, char mia amiko shatas doni
bonajn manghojn al siaj amikoj. Oni metis tre bonan supon antau mi,
kaj mi manghis tiun per granda kulero. Post la supo mi havis viandon.
Chi tiun mi tenis per forko, kaj tranchis per akra tranchilo. La forko,
tranchilo kaj kulero estas manghiloj. Mi havis ne nur viandon, sed
ankau novajn terpomojn. Mi tranchis tiujn chi per la tranchilo, sed
mi metis ilin en la bushon per forko. Mi tenis la forkon en la dekstra
mano, kaj metis la tranchilon trans mian teleron. Oni bezonas akran
tranchilon, sed oni ne bezonas tre akran forkon. Post la viando kaj la
terpomoj, oni donis al mi freshajn maturajn cherizojn. Ili kushis sur
granda telero, kaj havis belan koloron. Ilia gusto estis ankau bona.
Mi preskau ne diris ke mi ankau havis kafon. Mi parolos morgau al
mia amiko pri lia kafo, kaj laudos ghin. Post la mangho, najbaro de
mia amiko venis en chi ties domon, kaj ili parolis al mi pri siaj novaj
domoj. Per la helpo de sia patro, mia amiko konstruos grandan domon.
Lia najbaro volas konstrui belan sed ne tre grandan domon. Ties nova
domo estos bela, sed mi opinias ke mi preferos chi ties domon. Mia amiko
volis doni almenau kafon al sia najbaro, sed li diris ke li ne volas
trinki kafon. Tamen li volis persikon. Li tenis tiun en la mano, kaj
manghis tiun.


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The birds have very strong wings on their bodies, but they do not
have hands. 2. They will build their nests, and sing about the young
birds. 3. Those children were talking to me yesterday about their cat.
4. They said that it likes to catch and eat sparrows. 5. Tomorrow it
will hide (itself) behind a tree, and will catch a young sparrow. 6. The
children will gather peaches in that-person's garden, and will put them
upon a plate. 7. They will shake the whole tree by means of a branch. 8.
The sweet fruit above them will fall upon the soft green grass. 9. The
children wondered whether the cherries were ripe. 10. They seem almost
ripe, and tomorrow the children will pick (gather) them, with the help
of their father. 11. It is said (54) that the grain in that-man's field
very [much] needs rain. 12. People also think that the flowers will
wither, for (because) it did not rain yesterday or today. 13. My careful
young friend will carry an umbrella in his hand tomorrow, because he
fears the rain. 14. He sees those gray clouds in (on) the sky. 15. He
holds the umbrella by its handle. 16. The weathercock is an indicator
concerning the weather. 17. One eats meat with a fork, and soup with a
spoon. 18. One holds the spoon in the right hand. 19. A knife is sharp,
but one does not need a sharp fork. 20. We shall have a very good meal,
and also very good coffee.

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