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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (16)
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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (16)



68. The demonstrative adverbs of place related to the pronouns "tiu" and
"chi tiu" are "tie", there, in (at) that place, and "chi tie", here, in
(at) this place:

   La telero estas tie, the plate is there (in that place).
   La libroj kushas chi tie, the books lie here (in this place).
   Mi trovis vin tie kaj lin tie chi, I found you there and him here.
   Tie la vetero shajnas tre agrabla,
      there the weather seems very pleasant.

69. If the verb in the sentence expresses motion toward the place
indicated by "tie" or "chi tie", the ending "-n" is added to the adverb
(46), forming "tien", thither, there, and "chi tien", hither, here:

   Li iros tien, he will go there (thither).
   Mi venis chi tien, I came here (hither).
   Ni estis tie, kaj venis chi tien,
      we were there and came here (hither).


70. Accompaniment or association is expressed by the preposition "kun",
with, along with:

   La viro venis kun sia amiko, the man came with his friend.
   Mi promenos kun vi, I shall go walking with you.
   La knabo kun tiu viro estas lia frato,
      the boy with that man is his brother.

[Footnote: "Kun" must not be confused with "per" (64), which expresses
instrumentality, although per may often be translated by English "with."
The English preposition "with" may be said to have three rather clearly
defined different meanings. In the linguistic history of this word,
the original meaning was "against," still shown in "fight with, strive
with, contend with, withstand", etc. (Cf. German "widerstreiten", to
strive with, "widerhalten", to resist, etc.) Gradually this word "with"
usurped the meaning of the original preposition "mid," expressing
association or accompaniment (cf. German "mit", with, which it crowded
out of the language except in one unimportant compound). The word
"by" was also encroaching upon "mid" from another direction, and so
"mid's" successor "with" came to be interchangeable with "by" in
expressing instrumentality. Thus, English "with" indicates opposition,
accompaniment, or instrumentality, for which three senses Esperanto has
the three prepositions "kontrau", "kun", and "per", respectively.]

2010-8-10 10:47:50
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71. The adverb "for", away, may be used independently, as "Li iris
for de mi", he went away from me, but it is more frequently used as a
prefix to give a sense of departure, loss or somewhat forcible removal:

   foriri = to go away, to depart.
   forkuri = to run away, to escape.
   forlasi = to leave alone, to abandon, to desert.
   formanghi = to eat away, to eat up.
   forpreni = to take away, to remove.
   fortrinki = to drink away, to drink up.

[Footnote: Cf. the prefix "for-" in English "forfend," to keep away,
to avert, "forbid," to exclude from, to command against, "forbear," to
refrain from, etc.]

                         THE MEANING OF "POVI".

72. The verb "povi", to be able, is used to translate English "can",
which is defective, that is, does not occur in all of the forms a verb
may have:

   Mi povas paroli, I am able to talk, I can talk.
   Mi povis paroli, I was able to talk, I could talk.
   Mi povos paroli, I shall be able to talk, ------.
   Mi volas povi paroli, I wish to be able to talk, ------.
2010-8-10 10:48:05
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   el = out of, out.                  peli = to drive, to chase.
   chirkau = around, roundabout.      posho = pocket.
   for = away (71).                   rajdi = to ride.
   frua = early.                      rapidi = to hasten.
   glavo = sword.                     resti = to remain, to stay.
   horo = hour.                       sagha = wise.
   kun = with (70).                   tie = there (68).
   lasi = to leave.                   voki = to call.

                        MALAMIKOJ EN LA DEZERTO.

Juna viro kaj lia sagha patro volis iri trans la dezerton, kun siaj
amikoj. La amikoj estis fortaj, kaj la juna viro estis tre kuragha. Ili
restis en malgranda urbo dum la nokto, kaj forrajdis kun tiuj amikoj.
La patro kaj la filo opiniis ke la amikoj kun ili povos helpi per siaj
akraj glavoj. Ili opiniis ke ili povos forpeli la malamikojn. Ech en
la dezerto oni trovas malamikojn. Tiaj malamikoj forprenas la monon de
bonaj viroj. La juna viro estis kontenta, char li estis kun la amikoj.
La maljuna viro estis kontenta char li estis kun sia filo. Baldau la
nokto venis. Estis tre malluma tie en la dezerto, kaj ili preskau ne
povis vidi. Dum la fruaj horoj de la nokto la patro audis vochojn, kaj
preskau tuj li vidis la malamikojn. La ruzaj malbonaj viroj rapidis
tien, kaj vokis la maljunan viron. La malkuraghaj amikoj de la patro kaj
filo nek restis tie, nek helpis forpeli la malamikojn. Ili tuj forkuris.
La malamikoj staris chirkau la patro, kaj forpushis lin de lia chevalo.
La filo volis malhelpi ilin, sed li ne povis. Li povis nur resti kun la
patro, kaj gardi lin tie kontrau la glavoj de la malamikoj. Baldau la
malamikoj komencis forpreni la monon el la poshoj de la sagha maljuna
viro. La kolera filo diris per maldolcha ("bitter") vocho "Chu vi ne
hontas? Chu vi lasos al ni nek la chevalojn nek nian monon?" Sed la
malamikoj respondis "Ne, ni lasos al vi nek la chevalojn nek la monon.
Ni ne estas malsaghaj." Post tiu diro ili tuj forrapidis, kaj prenis kun
si la chevalojn.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The foolish friends of the young man and his aged father did not stay
with them. 2. They did not help them with their swords, but ran away at
once ("tuj"), and were not ashamed. 3. The old man heard disagreeable
voices behind him, and soon he saw the enemy. 4. The enemy called them,
and hastened there (69). 5. Those sly bad men took the money out of
the pockets of the courageous young man. 6. They stood around him, and
also around his father. 7. The father and son could not even guard
their horses. 8. The enemy did not leave (to) these their horses, but
took both the horses and the money. 9. Soon the enemy rode away, during
the late hours of the night. 10. The father and son were angry and
dissatisfied. 11. They said "We fear and dislike such men." 12. The
father said "By the help of our neighbors we can ("povos") find those
bad men, and drive them away, out of the desert." 13. The son replied,
"Dear Father, such a proposal seems good, and I will help with my long
sharp sword. 14. But we are now in the desert, and the road to the city
is long. 15. We cannot ride thither, but we can walk thither. 16. Can
you not hasten, with ("per") my help?" 17. The wise old man answered,
"Yes, my son, with such help I can walk thither."

2010-8-10 10:48:23

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