THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERB OF PLACE.
68. The demonstrative adverbs of place related to the pronouns "tiu" and
"chi tiu" are "tie", there, in (at) that place, and "chi tie", here, in
(at) this place:
La telero estas tie, the plate is there (in that place).
La libroj kushas chi tie, the books lie here (in this place).
Mi trovis vin tie kaj lin tie chi, I found you there and him here.
Tie la vetero shajnas tre agrabla,
there the weather seems very pleasant.
69. If the verb in the sentence expresses motion toward the place
indicated by "tie" or "chi tie", the ending "-n" is added to the adverb
(46), forming "tien", thither, there, and "chi tien", hither, here:
Li iros tien, he will go there (thither).
Mi venis chi tien, I came here (hither).
Ni estis tie, kaj venis chi tien,
we were there and came here (hither).
70. Accompaniment or association is expressed by the preposition "kun",
with, along with:
La viro venis kun sia amiko, the man came with his friend.
Mi promenos kun vi, I shall go walking with you.
La knabo kun tiu viro estas lia frato,
the boy with that man is his brother.
[Footnote: "Kun" must not be confused with "per" (64), which expresses
instrumentality, although per may often be translated by English "with."
The English preposition "with" may be said to have three rather clearly
defined different meanings. In the linguistic history of this word,
the original meaning was "against," still shown in "fight with, strive
with, contend with, withstand", etc. (Cf. German "widerstreiten", to
strive with, "widerhalten", to resist, etc.) Gradually this word "with"
usurped the meaning of the original preposition "mid," expressing
association or accompaniment (cf. German "mit", with, which it crowded
out of the language except in one unimportant compound). The word
"by" was also encroaching upon "mid" from another direction, and so
"mid's" successor "with" came to be interchangeable with "by" in
expressing instrumentality. Thus, English "with" indicates opposition,
accompaniment, or instrumentality, for which three senses Esperanto has
the three prepositions "kontrau", "kun", and "per", respectively.]