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世界语学习论坛世界语学习讨论区语法问题讨论 Diskutado pri gramatikaj punktoj → A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (20)

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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (20)
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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (20)
LESSON XX.


             THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERB OF MANNER AND DEGREE.

88. The demonstrative adverb of manner and degree, related to the
demonstrative pronoun "tiu", is "tiel", in that (this) manner, in
such a way, thus, so. Like English "thus," "so," "tiel" may modify
adjectives and other adverbs, by indicating degree:

   Chu oni tiel helpas amikon?
      Does one help a friend in that (this) way?
   Mi ghin skribis tiel, I wrote it thus (in such a way).
   La vetero estas tiel bela, the weather is so beautiful.
   Tiel mallonge li parolis, thus briefly he spoke.
   Mi trovis tiel belan floron, I found such a beautiful flower.
   Li prenis tiel multe, he took that much (so much).


                PREPOSITIONS EXPRESSING TIME-RELATIONS.

89. The relations which prepositions express may be of various kinds.
As in English, a certain number of prepositions primarily expressing
place may also express time-relations. Such prepositions are "antau",
"chirkau", "de", "en", "ghis", "inter", "post", and "je" (whose use in
other than time-relations will be explained later):

   Mi foriros chirkau junio, I shall depart about June.
   De tiu horo mi estis via amiko, from that hour I was your friend.
   Li ne parolis al mi de tiu semajno,
      he did not speak to me since from) that week.
   En la tuta monato ne neghis,
      it did not snow in (at any time within) the entire month.
   Mi dormis ghis malfrua horo, I slept until (up to) a late hour.
   Ghis nun li ne vidis vin, until now he did not see you.
   Inter marto kaj junio mi iros tien,
      between March and June I shall go there.
   Je malfrua horo li foriris, at a late hour he went away.
   Mi iros tien je dimancho, I shall go there on Sunday.
   Je tiu horo li vokis min, at that hour he called me.
   Shi ne restis tie post julio, she did not stay there after July.
   Post ne longe mi vokos vin,
      soon (after not long) I shall call you.

90. When a definite date or point in time is expressed, "antau" means
"before." When used with an expression of an "amount" of time, it is
to be translated by "ago" following the expression (not by "before"
preceding it):

   Antau dimancho mi foriros, before Sunday I shall go away.
   Mi vidis lin antau tiu horo, I saw him before that hour.
   Li skribos ghin antau la nova jaro,
      he will write it before New Year.
   Antau multaj jaroj mi trovis ghin, many years ago I found it.
   Mi rompis ghin antau longa tempo, I broke it a long time ago.
   Antau tre longe vi legis tiun libron,
      you read that book very long ago.
   Li venis antau ne longe, he came recently (not long ago).
   Antau malmultaj jaroj li forkuris, a few years ago he escaped.

[Footnote: As already shown, "kun" expresses accompaniment, "per"
expresses instrumentality, "pro" expresses cause, "kontrau" expresses
opposition, "anstatau" expresses substitution, "sur", "apud", "sub",
etc., express place, "dum" expresses time, etc.]

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VOCABULARY

   dimancho = Sunday.                 mateno = morning.
   energia = energetic.               promeno = walk, promenade.
   frosto = frost.                    rakonto = story, narrative.
   je = at, on (89).                  ripozi = to rest, to repose.
   kota = muddy.                      semajno = week.
   labori = to work, to labor.        tempo = time.
   laca = tired, weary.               tiel = thus, so (88)
   lundo = Monday.                    tro = too, too much.
   mardo = Tuesday.                   vespero = evening.


                             EN SEPTEMBRO.

Antau multaj jaroj ni preferis resti en nia malgranda domo trans la
rivero, dum la tuta autuno. Sed nun ni restas tie nur ghis oktobro.
De augusto ghis oktobro la vetero estas tre agrabla tie, sed baldau
post tiu monato la fortaj ventoj blovas, kaj la folioj komencas fali. La
frosto kovras la teron, kaj baldau neghas tre ofte. Ju pli nudaj estas
la arboj, des pli malbelaj ili shajnas. La vetero antau novembro ne
estas tro malvarma, sed post tiu monato ni opinias ke la urbo estas pli
agrabla ol domo inter kampoj kaj arboj, trans largha rivero. La frosto,
negho kaj glacio kovras la teron en decembro, januaro kaj februaro. Sed
la monato septembro shajnas tre agrabla, pro siaj multaj plezuroj. La
viroj laboras energie en la kampoj, de la mateno ghis la vespero. Ili
rikoltas la flavan grenon, kaj kolektas la fruktojn. Sed je dimancho oni
ne laboras tiel energie, sed dormas ghis malfrua horo, tial ke je tiu
tago oni ripozas. Je lundo oni komencas labori tre frue, kaj je mardo
oni ankau laboras energie. En septembro la vojoj ne estas tro kotaj,
kaj longaj promenoj estas ofte agrablaj. Ju pli ofte mi promenas kun
miaj amikoj, des pli multe mi shatas tiajn promenojn. Sed hierau mi
estis tre laca post la promeno, tial mi ripozis sur granda mola segho.
Antau ne longe la patro promenis kun mi, sed ni ne estis tiel lacaj je
tiu tago. Shajnas ke ju pli ofte ni promenas, des malpli lacaj ni estas
post la promenoj. Post ne longe mi estos pli forta.

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SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Many years ago we had a small house across the river. 2. We did not
remain there during the entire year, but only in the warmer months of
the summer. 3. Often we stayed until September or even until October. 4.
My younger brothers and sisters amused themselves very well there from
(the) morning until (the) evening. 5. They amused themselves among the
flowers and trees, or went from there into the large fields. 6. Here the
men work energetically, and harvest the ripe yellow grain. 7. Only on
Sunday do they rest, because on that day one does not work. 8. Between
August and November the men work more than in the winter. 9. In December
and after that month they rest, for (83) from that time the frost, ice
and snow cover the ground. 10. Because of the snow on the ground, long
walks are not pleasant in the winter. 11. Recently (90) we went walking
in the park across the river, but we were so tired after that walk! 12.
The longer the walk is, the sooner one wishes to rest. 13. On Monday it
rained, so (78) we read stories and wrote letters, in a pleasant light
room in our house. 14. Before evening, however, the sun shone, and the
streets were not so muddy. 15. On Tuesday these streets were almost dry,
and soon the roads near the river and between the fields will also be
dry. 16. A few years ago those roads were very good.
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