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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (27)
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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (27)
LESSON XXVII.


                   THE INTERROGATIVE TEMPORAL ADVERB

123. The interrogative temporal adverb, related to the interrogative
pronoun "kiu", is "kiam", when, at what time?

   Kiam li serchos min? When will he look for me?
   Oni miras kiam li venos, they wonder when he is coming (will come).
   Kiam falis tiuj gutoj da pluvo? When did those drops of rain fall?


                           THE PERFECT TENSE.

124. The compound tense formed by using the past active participle
with the present tense of "esti" is called the "perfect tense". It
differs from the aoristic past tense (35) and from the imperfect (113)
by expressing an act or condition as definitely completed or perfected.
The conjugation of "vidi" in the perfect tense is as follows:

   mi estas vidinta, I have seen (I am having-seen).
   vi estas vidinta, you have seen (you are having-seen).
   li (shi, ghi) estas vidinta, he (she, it) has seen (is having-seen).
   ni estas vidintaj, we have seen (we are having-seen).
   vi estas vidintaj, you have seen (you are having-seen).
   ili estas vidintaj, they have seen (they are having-seen).

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THE PREPOSITION "CHE".

125. The general situation of a person, object or action is expressed by
the use of the preposition "che", at, at the house of, in the region or
land of, among, with, etc.:

   Li staris silente che la pordego, he stood silently at the gate.
   Li loghas che mia avo, he lives (dwells) at my grandfather's.
   Ili estas che la lernejo, they are at the school.
   Li restos che amikoj, he will stay with (at the house of) friends.
   Li vizitos che ni morgau, he will visit at-our-house tomorrow.


                           THE SUFFIX "-AR-".

126. Words expressing a collection, group or assemblage of similar
persons or things, as "forest" (collection of trees), "army" (assemblage
of soldiers), etc., may be formed by the use of the suffix "-ar-". This
suffix may itself be used as a root to form "aro", "group, flock", etc.,
"are", in a group, by throngs, etc. Words formed with the suffix "-ar-"
are called collectives:

   arbaro, forest (from arbo, tree).
   chevalaro, herd of horses (from chevalo, horse).
   kamparo, country (from kampo, field).
   libraro, collection of books, library (from libro, book).
   amikaro, circle of friends (from amiko, friend).
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"TEMPO" AND "FOJO".

127. The general word for "time" in the sense of duration, or
suitability (as "the proper time"), is "tempo". The word "fojo",
time, occasion, refers to the performance or occurrence of an
act or event, in repetition or series:

   Mi ne havas multe da tempo, I have not much time.
   Li venis multajn fojojn, kaj la lastan fojon li restis longan tempon,
      he came many times, and the last time he remained a long time.
   Kelkajn fojojn laute tondris, several times it thundered loudly.
   Multe da fojoj ni fermis la okulojn pro la fulmo,
      many times we closed our eyes on account of the lightning.

                    THE ORTHOGRAPHY OF PROPER NOUNS.

128. Proper nouns, that is, nouns which are names of persons, cities,
countries, etc., are given Esperanto spelling if they are names of
continents, countries, large or very well-known cities, or if they
are first (Christian) names of persons, as "Azio", Asia, "Skotlando",
Scotland, "Bostono", Boston, "Johano", John, "Mario", Mary. Surnames
and names of places which are small or not well known are more often
quoted in the national spelling. The pronunciation may be indicated
in parentheses, as "Mt. Vernon" ("Maunt Vernon"), "Roberto Bruce"
("Brus"), "Martinique" ("Martinik'"), etc.


                               VOCABULARY

   arane-o = spider.                  ramp-i = to crawl.
   Azi-o = Asia.                      rekt-a = direct, straight.
   che = at (125).                    rimark-i = to notice.
   fin-o = end, ending.               send-i = to send.
   foj-o = time, instance (127).      Skotland-o = Scotland.
   kiam = when (123).                 soldat-o = soldier.
   pacienc-o = patience.              sukces-i = to succeed.
   pied-o = foot.                     supr-e = above.
   plafon-o = ceiling.                venk-i = to conquer.

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ROBERTO BRUCE KAJ LA ARANEO.

Oni rakontas la sekvantan interesan rakonton pri Roberto Bruce, regho
antau multaj jaroj en Skotlando. Okazis ke li estis rigardanta la
soldataron de siaj malamikoj, de la fenestro de granda chevalejo.
Por povi rigardi plej facile, kaj ankau por sin kashi, li forsendis
siajn soldatojn kaj restis la tutan tagon sub tiu tegmento. Kvankam la
chevalejo estis granda ghi estis malnova, kaj li opiniis ke la malamikoj
ne serchos lin tie. Je la fino de la tago li subite rimarkis araneon
sur la muro apud si. La araneo estis rampanta supren, sed baldau ghi
falis en la polvon che liaj piedoj. Tuj la falinta araneo komencis
alian fojon supren rampi. Alian fojon ghi falis teren, sed post ne
longe ghi komencis rampi alian fojon. "Kia pacienco!" diris la regho al
si. "Mi ne sciis ke la araneo havas tiel multe da pacienco! Sed kien
ghi nun estas falinta?" Li rigardis chirkauen kaj fine ("finally")
li vidis la falintan araneon. Kun granda surprizo li rimarkis ke ghi
estas komencanta supren rampi. Multajn fojojn ghi supren rampis, kaj
tiom da fojoj ghi falis malsupren. Fine, tamen, ghi sukcese rampis
ghis la plafono. La regho malfermis la bushon pro surprizo, kaj diris
al si "Kiam antaue mi vidis tiom da pacienco! Mi opinias ke la fina
sukceso de tiu malgranda araneo donas al mi bonegan lecionon. Mi estas
ofte malsukcesinta, sed malpli ofte ol tiu araneo sur la muro. Mi estas
perdinta multe da soldatoj, kaj la malamikoj estas venkintaj multajn
fojojn, char ili havas multe pli grandan nombron da soldatoj. Tamen, mi
estos pacienca, char oni ne scias kiam li fine sukcesos." La sekvintan
tagon, la regho Roberto Bruce komencis treege labori kontrau siaj
malamikoj. Post mallonga tempo li bone sukcesis, kaj tute venkis la
malamikoj en granda venko che Bannockburn (Banokb'rn).


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Although the enemies of Robert Bruce conquered him many times, he
finally conquered them in Scotland, because he was patient and very
courageous. 2. He was sitting in a large stable, to hide (himself), and
also in order to (98) look directly from its roof (at) the soldiery
(126) of the enemy. 3. At the end of the day he noticed a spider
crawling up (ward) on the wall. 4. The spider fell suddenly into the
dust and lay at the king's feet, but soon began to crawl up. 5. "Where
does it wish to go?" said the king to himself. 6. "What patience it
shows! It has crawled up and fallen down a great many times." 7. Finally
however the spider succeeded, and crawled up to the ceiling. 8. The
king said that he had learned a lesson from the patient spider. 9. He
said "Although the enemy have conquered many times, because they have a
larger number of soldiers, I shall finally succeed against them." 10.
Soon it happened that the wind blew violently, and a rainstorm occurred.
11. The blast shook the foliage (126) on the trees, and broke away many
small branches. 12. A group of soldiers ran right ("rekte") toward the
stable, and Robert Bruce was much afraid that they would find him. 13.
But they merely stole the horses there, and rode away.

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