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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (49)
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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (49)
LESSON XLIX.


           THE NEGATIVE ADVERBS "NENIAL", "NENIEL", "NENIOM".

229. The negative adverb of motive or reason, related to the negative
pronoun "neniu", is "nenial", for no reason:

   Li estas nenial jhaluza, he is jealous for no reason.
   Nenial li trompis vin, for no reason he deceived you.

230. The negative adverb of manner is "neniel", in no way.

   Mi povos neniel aranghi konkurson,
      I can in no way arrange a competition.
   Tiu ago estas neniel lauregula,
      That act is in no way regular.

231. The negative adverb of quantity is "neniom", no amount of, not
any, none, no:

   Tiu pentrajho postulas neniom da lerteco,
      such a painting requires no skill.
   Estas neniom da vino en lia glaso,
      there is no wine in his glass.
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THE SUFFIX "-IGH-".

232. The suffix "-igh-" is used to form intransitive verbs of an
"inchoative" nature.

a. Inchoative verbs from the roots of "intransitive verbs" indicate
the "beginning" or "coming into existence" of the act or condition
expressed in the root:

   sidighi, to become sitting, to sit down, to take a seat.
   starighi, to become standing, to stand up.

b. Intransitive verbs may be similarly formed from the roots of
"transitive" verbs, and indicate an action of the verb not immediately
due to the subject's acting upon itself (as in the case of reflexive
verbs, 41) and not caused by any direct agency (as in the case of the
passive voice, 169):

   La pordo fermighas, the door closes (goes shut).
   La veturilo movighas, the vehicle moves.
   La brancho rompighas, the branch breaks.
   Grupo da personoj kolektighis, a group of persons gathered.

[Footnote: Cf. the examples given and the following sentences in which
the same verbal roots are used in the simple form and in the passive
voice:

   Ni fermas la pordon,          La pordo estas fermita,
         we close the door.           the door is (has been) closed.

   Oni movas la veturilon,       La veturilo estas movata,
         they move the vehicle.       the vehicle is being moved.

   Mi rompas la branchon,        La brancho estas rompita,
      I break the branch.           the branch is (has been) broken.

   Li kolektis florojn,          Floroj estas kolektitaj,
      he gathered flowers.          flowers have been gathered.]

c. Intransitive verbs may similarly be formed from "adjectival" roots,
and indicate the acquiring of the characteristic or quality expressed in
the root:

   lacighi, to become tired, to get tired.
   varmighi, to become warm, to get warm.
   maljunighi, to become old, to age.

d. Verbs may similarly be formed from noun-roots, adverbs,
prepositions, prefixes and suffixes whose meaning permits:

   amikighi, to become a friend.      kunighi, to become joined.
   forighi, to go away, to disappear. eblighi, to become possible.


                               VOCABULARY

   apenau = hardly, scarcely.         nenial = for no reason (229).
   atmosfer-o = atmosphere.           neniel = in no way (230).
   dub-i = to doubt.                  neniom = none, no (231).
   efektiv-a = effective, real.       ombr-o = shadow.
   hel-a = clear, bright.             pejzagh-o = landscape.
   horizont-o = horizon.              radi-o = ray.
   krepusk-o = twilight.              tropik-a = tropical.

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LA KREPUSKO.

Estas tre agrable sidighi sur la herbon, kaj rigardi la plilongighantajn
ombrojn, en la dauro de bela somera vespero. La suno grade mallevighas
post la montetoj, la nuboj farighas ("become") bele kolorigitaj, kaj la
tuta pejzagho pli kaj pli belighas. Malrapide la krepusko anstatauas la
helan sunlumon, kaj fine chie noktighas. La krepusko estas la rebrilado
de la sunlumo tra la atmosfero, post la mallevigho de la suno mem, lau
la jena maniero: la radioj suprenbriladas, en la aeron super niaj kapoj,
en la okcidenta parto de la chielo. De tie ili rebriladas tiamaniere ke
la chielo lumighas. Kiam estas iom da nuboj sur la chielo okcidenta,
la sunradioj briladas rekte kontrau ilin, belege kolorigante tiujn
nubojn. En tropikaj landoj la krepuskigho okazas tre rapide. Ghi ne
nur komencighas subite, sed ankau dauras tre mallongan tempon. La
noktigho preskau tuj sekvas la taglumon, kun rimarkinda subiteco.
Apenau komencighas la krepusko, kiam la subiranta suno shajnas fali
preter la horizonto. Tute male ("quite on the contrary"), en landoj
treege nordaj, krepuskighas tre frue en la tago, kaj la krepusko dauras
longan tempon antau ol la nokto venas. Efektive ("really"), en tiuj
landoj la krepusko tute anstatauas la nokton, dum ses monatoj de la
jaro. Tie oni havas krepuskon dum la unua duonjaro, kaj la taglumon
dum la sekvinta duonjaro. Krepusko dauranta tiom da tempo estas tiel
rimarkinda kiel tago de tia sama longeco. Mi dubas chu tia dividado
de la tempo inter tago kaj malhela nokto estas agrabla, sed oni povas
neniel malhelpi ghin. Chiu tre norda lando havas la saman travivajhon
("experience"), chiujare, kaj efektive oni apenau rimarkas ghin. Pri
chiu plendanto oni nur diras "Li estas nenial malkontenta."


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

of ("pri") the two painters who, being mutually (180) jealous, arranged
a competition. 2. One painted a cluster (126) of grapes, so excellently
that the birds flew to it. 3. The other deceived his rival (competitor)
himself, by a painting of a curtain. 4. The most famous artists,
however, often show their skill by painting (222) pictures of the
sunset, chiefly, I think, because of the brilliant colors. 5. In fact
("efektive"), I doubt whether there is a more beautiful sight (227,
b) than the sunset. 6. It is made by the bright rays of the sun,
which shine back through the atmosphere, long after the sun itself
has passed below the horizon. 7. The more moisture ("malsekajho")
there is in the air, the more brilliant the colors are, and the more
beautiful the entire landscape becomes. 8. In tropical lands, night
falls very suddenly, and there is almost no sort of twilight. 9. In
fact, a twilight scarcely occurs there. 10. In the lands far north, on
the contrary, the twilight lasts six months, and the remainder of the
year is the day. 11. To dwell in such a land is surely a remarkable
experience. 12. It can in no way be understood by persons who have never
lived there. 13. Such things increase (make greater) my desire to visit
those northern lands. 14. For no reason, however, do I

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