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世界语学习论坛世界语学习讨论区语法问题讨论 Diskutado pri gramatikaj punktoj → A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (50)

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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (50)
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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (50)
LESSON L.


                      THE PRONOUNS ENDING IN "-O".

233. In contrast to the pronouns ending in "-u" ("tiu", "kiu", "chiu",
"iu", "neniu"), a similar series ending in "-o" refers to an object,
fact or action not definitely specified (but never to a person), like
English "what, anything, something, nothing," etc. Because of their
somewhat vague meaning, these pronouns do not occur in the plural, nor
are they ever used as pronominal adjectives:

Demonstrative: tio = that (thing, fact or action).
               chi tio = this (thing, fact or action).

Interrogative and Relative: kio = what.

Distributive: chio = everything.
              chio chi = all this.

Indefinite: io = anything, something.

Negative: nenio = nothing.

234. A pronoun (not personal) in predicate or relative relation to a
pronoun ending in "-o" must itself be of the same series:

   Kio estas chi tio, kion vi diras? What is this, which you say?
   Shi vidis tion, kio jhus okazis, she saw that which just occurred.
   Chio chi, kion vi vidas, estas farita de ili,
      everything here (all this), which you see, was done by them.
   Li havas ion por vi, sed nenion por mi,
      he has something for you, but nothing for me.
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 CORRELATIVE WORDS.

235. Pronouns, adjectives and adverbs, which are related to each other
as corresponding demonstratives, interrogatives, relatives, etc., are
called "correlatives". In Esperanto the correlative system is more
complete than in any other language, and may be summarized as follows:

Demonstrative    Interrogative  Distributive  Indefinite  Negative
                  and Relative

tio (233)        kio (233)      chio (233)    io (233)    nenio (233)
  that (thing)     what, which    everything    anything    nothing

tiu (56)         kiu (146)      chiu (173)    iu (203)    neniu (220)
  that (one)       who, which     every, each   any (one)   no (one)

ties (62)        kies (147)     chies (174)   ies (204)   nenies(221)
  that one's       whose          every one's   any one's   no one's

tia (65)         kia (150)      chia (177)    ia (208)    nenia (224)
  that kind of     what kind of   every kind    any kind    no kind of

tie (68)         kie (151)      chie (182)    ie (209)    nenie (225)
  there            where          everywhere    anywhere    nowhere

tiam (73)        kiam (155)     chiam (187)   iam (212)   neniam (226)
  then             when           always        any time    never

tial (78)        kial (129)     chial (188)   ial (213)   nenial (229)
  therefore,       wherefore,     for every     for any     for no
  so               why            reason        reason      reason

tiel (88),       kiel (156)     chiel (193)   iel (216)   neniel (230)
  (156) thus, so   how, as        every way     any way     in no way

tiom (104)       kiom (164)     chiom (194)   iom (217)   neniom (231)
  that much,       how much,      all, the      some, any   none, no
  so much          as             whole of      amount      quantity
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THE USE OF "AJN".

236. The word "ajn" may be placed after any interrogative-relative or
indefinite correlative word, to give a generalizing sense. In order
to avoid confusion with the accusative plural ending, "ajn" is "never
attached" to the correlative which it follows:

   kio ajn = whatever.                kiam ajn = whenever.
   kies ajn = whosesoever.            kiom ajn = however much.
   kie ajn = wherever.                ia ajn = any kind whatever.


                          THE SUFFIX "-ING-".

237. The suffix "-ing-" is used to form words indicating that which
holds "one" specimen of what is expressed in the root:

   glavingo = scabbard.               plumingo = pen-holder.
   lumingo = torch-holder.            ingo = sheath, case, socket.


                               VOCABULARY

   chio = everything (233).           nenio = nothing (233).
   Gordio = Gordius.                  ofer-o = offering.
   io = anything (233).               reg-i = to rule, to govern.
   jug-o = yoke.                      sankt-a = sacred, holy.
   klin-i = to bend, incline (trans). templ-o = temple.
   kio = what (233).                  tio = that (thing) (233).
   lig-i = to tie, to bind.           util-a = useful.
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 LA GORDIA LIGAJHO.

Unufoje en antikva tempo la regatoj de iu regholando en Azio ne
havis reghon. Ne sciante kion fari, ili demandis de la dioj. La dioj
respondis, "Kiu ajn venos unue en nian sanktan templon hodiau, por fari
oferojn, estos via regho." Okaze kamparano nomita Gordio venis al la
templo, jhus post la tagigho. La regatoj tuj rekonis la estontan reghon,
kvankam li veturis sur peza malbela veturilo. Salutinte la surprizitan
kamparanon, oni nomis lin regho. Decidinte fari dankoferon al la dioj,
Gordio metis en la templon la veturilon mem sur kiu li tien veturis,
antau ol li komencis regi kiel la nova regho. La jugo estis alligita
("tied fast") per granda ligajho el shnurego. Post la morto de Gordio
oni grade komencis kredi ion tre interesan pri tio. Oni diris ke tiu,
kiu povos iel ajn malligi tiun ligajhon, farighos reganto super chiuj
reghoj de Azio.

Post kelkaj jaroj Aleksandro Granda decidis fari grandan militadon
kontrau Azio, kaj alproksimighis al la lando kie estis reginta Gordio.
Kiam li demandis, "Kio estas chi tie la plej interesa vidindajho?"
oni rakontis al li tion, kion oni diras pri la shnurega ligajho sur
la veturilo de Gordio. Kompreneble ("of course") Aleksandro deziris
fari ion ajn utilan por venki Azion, tial li tuj venigis gvidiston
por konduki lin al la templo. Alveninte tien, li zorge rigardadis la
ligajhon, kaj ekzamenis la shnuregon el kiu ghi estis farita. Tiam,
elpreninte sian glavon el la glavingo, subite klinighante li rekte
tratranchis la tutan ligajhon. "Nenio estas pli facila ol tio," li
diris, "kaj nun mi ne dubas chu mi certe regos super chiuj reghoj de
Azio." Pro tio, kion faris Aleksandro Granda, oni ankorau nuntempe
diras, kiam iu ajn superas malfacilajhon per kia ajn subita metodo, "Li
tranchis la gordian ligajhon."


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. One often hears the remark "I will cut the Gordian knot." 2. There
is an interesting story about this. 3. A wagon whose yoke was tied to
the pole by a large knot had been put in the middle of the temple.
4. It was a thank-offering to the sacred gods, by whose help Gordius
had in olden time become king. 5. It was said that whoever would be
able to untie that rope would no doubt become ruler over the whole of
Asia. 6. Alexander the Great, having begun a campaign against Asia,
approached the city where this temple was. 7. Having heard the story,
he at once had a guide come, and went thither, guided by him. 8. He
desired to do everything which was useful to the conquering of Asia. 9.
Having examined the knot carefully, he bent over and tried for a few
minutes to untie it. 10. Then he chose another method. 11. He seized
his sword, and suddenly cut through the whole knot. 12. Having done
this, he put the sword back into the scabbard. 13. This he did, instead
of continuing ("daurigi") his efforts to untie the knot. 14. In fact,
having no patience, he had become tired. 15. Perhaps the conquering
of Asia did not in any way become possible on account of this, but
at least the story is interesting, whatever actually ("efektive")
happened. 16. Nothing is impossible, whenever one tries enough. 17. In a
tropical country, such as part of Asia is, the landscapes are beautiful.
18. A tropical twilight is very short, however, and the shadows have
scarcely become long when the sun seems to sink suddenly below the
horizon, although the last bright rays continue to shine back through
the atmosphere for a few minutes.

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