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世界语学习论坛世界语学习讨论区语法问题讨论 Diskutado pri gramatikaj punktoj → A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (53)

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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (53)
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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (53)
LESSON LIII.


                      CONDITIONS CONTRARY TO FACT.

246. A "condition contrary to fact" indicates that the opposite of what
is mentioned has really taken place or is taking place. It expresses the
speaker's certainty that an act or state would have been realized, if
some other act or state were also realized. Such conditions cannot refer
to the future, but only to present or past time. The conditional mood is
used:

   Se vi estus turninta vin, vi estus vidinta tion,
      if you had turned, you would have seen that.
   Se la malsekajho ne estus densighinta, ne estus pluvinte,
      if the moisture had not condensed, it would not have rained.
   Se li estus kaptita, li estus punita,
      if he had been caught, he would have been punished.
   Se li estus sidanta tie, mi vidus lin,
      if he were (if he should be) sitting there, I should see him.
   Se la gravitado ne ekzistus, tiu pluvo ne estus falanta,
      if gravitation did not (should not) exist,
         that rain would not be falling.


                            THE VERB "DEVI".

247. The verb "devi" (cf. "devo", duty) is equivalent to the verb "must"
(which in English has no future, past, infinitive, etc.), and to "to
have to", "to be obliged to", etc., carrying the idea of "must" into all
tenses and moods. In the conditional mood its meaning is softened into a
vaguer sense (of "moral" obligation), and carries the idea of "ought":

   Objektoj en la aero devas fali, objects in the air have to fall.
   Ni devis agi lau la leghoj, we had to act according to the laws.
   Vi devos iri, you must (will have to) go.
   Shi ne volas devi fari tion, she does not wish to have to do that.
   Ili devigis min iri, they compelled me to go.
   Vi devus iri, you should go (you ought to go).
   Oni devus pensi antau ol paroli, one ought to think before speaking.
   Li estus devinta veni, he ought to have come.
   Tio devus esti farita, that ought to have been done.
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THE PREPOSITION "SEN".

248. The preposition "sen", without, indicates the omission, absence or
exclusion of that which is expressed by its complement. It may be used
as a prefix (160), giving a sense of deprivation or exclusion (like that
given by the English suffix "-less"):

   Li difinis la vorton sen eraro, he defined the word without an error.
   La rivero senchese fluas, the river flows without ceasing.
   Tio estas ne nur senutila sed ech malutila,
      that is not only useless but even harmful.
   Li ne plu estas senmona, he is no longer penniless.
   Li sentime alproksimighis al ghi, he fearlessly approached it.

[Footnote: English phrases containing "without" as in "without reading,"
must be changed to phrases clearly containing verbal nouns, as "without
the reading of," before translating into an Esperanto phrase with "sen".
Otherwise a participle with "ne" should replace the phrase ("222"): "Sen
la legado de tio, mi ne komprenus", without (the) reading (of) that,
I should not understand. "Ne leginte tion, mi ne komprenus", without
reading (not having read) that, I should not understand.]


                               VOCABULARY

   akuz-i = to accuse.                nobl-a = noble.
   instru-i = to teach.               pardon-i = to pardon.
   kondamn-i = to condemn.            pek-i = to sin.
   konfes-i = to confess, to admit.   prav-a = right, correct.
   konscienc-o = conscience.          sen = without (248).
   kulp-o = guilt.                    So-krato = Socrates.
   merit-i = to deserve.              venen-o = poison.
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LA FILOZOFO SOKRATO.

Unu el la plej famaj grekaj filozofoj estis nomita Sokrato. Li
estis malbela malalta persono, kun senhara kapo kaj dika korpo, sed
malgrau tio li estis treege bona, nobla kaj sagha. Li instruadis per
interparolado kun la lernantoj. Kutime li komencis per demando pri
io ajn, pri kio la auskultanto respondos. Fine, la lernanto grade
komprenis chu liaj propraj opinioj pri la afero estas pravaj. Ankorau
nun oni nomas tiun metodon de instruado per la interparolado "la Sokrata
metodo." Sokrato diradis tute sen timo chion, kion li pensis, ech pri
la dioj kaj pri la nekredeblaj rakontoj pri la dioj. Se li ne estus
tiel multe klariginta, eble li estus vivinta pli longan tempon. Sed
multaj personoj malamis lin, precipe char li donis novajn ideojn al
la junuloj, kiuj sekve komencis pensi por si mem, anstatau fari tion
kion faras chiu alia. Tial oni akuzis Sokraton en la jughejo, nomante
lin pekanto kaj malbonfaranto, unue, char li ne disdonas oferojn al la
dioj, due, char li enkondukas novajn diojn (char li diris ke supernatura
vocho, kiu sendube estis lia nomo por la konscienco, parolis mallaute
che lia orelo), trie, char li malbonigas la junularon de la urbo. Se
li estus konfesinte la kulpon kaj petinte pardonon, tiam la jughistoj
eble estus punintaj lin per nura ("mere") monpago ("fine"). Sed li fiere
respondis ke efektive li multe plibonigas la junularon, kaj anstatau
esti malutila, au ech neutila, li treege utilas al la urbo. Li diris
ke oni havas nenian rajton puni lin, sed ke, kauze de sia bonfarado al
la urbo, li efektive meritas chiutagan manghon senpagan. Tamen, tute ne
kompreninte kiel prava Sokrato estas, la jughistoj mortkondamnis lin.
Oni devigis lin trinki la venenon. Iom poste, en la malliberejo, li
trankvile adiauis siajn plorantajn amikojn, kaj akceptinte la venenan
trinkajhon, sentime ghin trinkis.


                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Socrates believed that if one knows about good and evil (201) he will
do good, but will not do evil. 2. Therefore he wished to help mankind
("la homaron"), teaching them what the good is. 3. He also wished to
discover for himself what is right and what is wrong. 4. So he asked
every one whom he met (about) his opinions, and the one-talking-with
[him] would also notice whether his own ideas were right or not. 5. But
the fellow-citizens of Socrates were jealous, and hated him, because
they did not understand him. 6. Therefore they accused him, called him a
sinner, and sent around (245) false reports ("falsajn sciigojn") about
him. 7. Because he said that conscience guided him (in the form of a
soft voice at his ear), they accused him of ("pri") introducing (218,
b) new gods. 8. They also said that he was corrupting the youth of the
city. 9. If Socrates had pleaded guilty, and begged for a fine instead
of the death-punishment, without doubt he would have been pardoned and
fined ("monpunita"). 10. But he said "I have never in my life sinned in
any way, and I do not deserve any sort of punishment." So the judges
condemned him to death by the drinking of poison.

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