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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (55)
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A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (55)

LESSON LV.


                          THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.

254. For expressions of command, exhortation, entreaty, etc., there
is an "imperative mood", as in English. The ending of the imperative
mood is "-u". Beside the aoristic tense, six compound tenses are formed
by combining the participles with the imperative mood "estu" of the
auxiliary verb, but these tenses are seldom used. The conjugation of
"vidi" in the aoristic tense of this mood, together with a synopsis in
the compound tenses, is as follows:

                            Aoristic Tense.

         mi vidu! = let me see!       ni vidu! = let us see!
         (vi) vidu! = (you) see!      (vi) vidu! = (you) see!
         li (shi, ghi) vidu! =        ili vidu! = let them see!
            let him (her, it) see!

                            Compound Tenses.

                 Active.                       Passive.

        Present:   mi estu vidanta    Present:   mi estu vidata
        Past:      mi estu vidinta    Past:      mi estu vidita
        Future:    mi estu vidonta    Future:    mi estu vidota

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 RESOLVE AND EXHORTATION.

255. The "first person singular" of the imperative mood is used
to express the speaker's resolve concerning his own action, or an
exhortation to himself concerning such action. The "first person plural"
is used to express resolve or exhortation concerning the joint action of
the speaker and the person or persons addressed:

   Mi pensu pri tio! Let me think about that!
   Mi ne forgesu tion! I must not (do not let me) forget that!
   Ni ekzilu lin! Let us exile him!
   Ni ne sidighu tie! Let us not sit down there!
   Ni estu grize vestitaj! Let us be dressed in gray!

[Footnote: This force is usually expressed in English by "let" with an
accusative and infinitive construction.]


                       COMMANDS AND PROHIBITIONS.

256. The "second" and "third" persons of the imperative are used to
express peremptory commands and prohibitions.

a. In the second person the pronoun is usually omitted, as in English,
unless special emphasis is placed upon it:

   Estu trankvila! Be calm! (One person is addressed.)
   Estu pretaj por akompani min!
      Be ready to accompany me! (Two or more persons are addressed.)
   Parolu kvazau vi komprenus! Talk as though you understood!
   Ne fermu tiun pordon! Do not shut that door!
   Ne estu vidata tie! Do not be seen there!

b. In the third person a circumlocution in English is necessary in
translation (as "let", "must", "are to", "is to", etc.):

   Li estu zorga! Let him be careful (he must be careful)!
   Shi ne faru tion! Do not let her do that (she is not to do that)!
   Chio estu pardonata! Let everything be forgiven!
   Oni lasu min trankvila! People are to let me alone!
   Ili neniam revenu! Let them never (do not let them ever) return!
   La kulpuloj estu punataj! Let the culprits be punished!

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 LESS PEREMPTORY USES OF THE IMPERATIVE.

257. By an extension of its use in resolve, exhortation, command
and prohibition, the imperative mood may be employed for less
peremptory expressions, such as "request", "wish", "advice", etc.,
and in "questions of deliberation or perplexity", or "requests for
instruction":

Request:  Chesu tiun bruon, mi petas! Stop that noise, I beg!
          Bonvolu fari tion! Please do that!
          Pardonu al ni niajn pekojn! Forgive us our sins!
Wish:     Ili estu felichaj! May they be happy!
          Dio vin benu! God bless you!
          Vivu la regho! (Long) live the king!
Advice:   Pensu antau ol agi! Think before acting!
          Foriru, se vi ne estas kontenta!
               Go away, if you are not satisfied!
Consent:  Nu, parolu, sed mi ne auskultos!
               Well, talk, but I shall not listen!
          Iru tuj, se vi volas. Go at once, if you like.
Question: Chu mi faru tion au ne? Am I to do that or not?
          Chu ni disdonu la librojn? Shall we distribute the books?
          Chu li estu kondamnita? Shall he be condemned?
          Chu ili venu chi tien? Are they to (shall they) come here?


                        THE USE OF "MOSHTO".

258. The word "moshto" may be used alone, or after a title, to denote
respect. When used after a title, the title becomes an adjective:

   Lia regha moshto, his majesty.
   Lia jughista moshto, his honor the judge.
   Shia reghina moshto, her majesty.
   Lia urbestra moshto, his honor the mayor.
   Chu via moshto lin audis?
      Did your honor (excellency, etc.) hear him?

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 VOCABULARY

   Afrik-o = Africa.                  mosht-o = a title (see 258).
   barbar-o = barbarian.              ordon-i = to order, to bid.
   Damokl-o = Damocles.               permes-i = to permit.
   flank-o = side.                    plach-i = to please.
   imperi-o = empire.                 sklav-o = slave.
   konsent-i = to consent.            sol-a = sole, only.
   konsil-i = to advise.              volont-e = willingly.


                          LA GLAVO DE DAMOKLO.

Antau pli multe ol dumil jaroj vivis en Sirakuzo, sur la insulo
Sikelio, tre kruela tirano. Li diris al si "Mi estu chiopova
("all-powerful")!" Tial li faris multe da militadoj, kaj venkis ne nur
barbarajn popolojn, sed ankau multajn urbojn en Italujo kaj norda
Afriko. Detruinte chion sen kompato, li ordonis "La loghantoj estu
vendataj por sklavoj!" Li deziris fari por si, el la venkitaj kaj
sklavigitaj popoloj, unu grandan imperion. Sed la urboj chie, ech en
Grekujo, ne kashis al li sian grandan malamon al tia tirano. Tial li
chiam timis pri sia vivo, timante ke iu subite mortigos lin. Unufoje
Damoklo, amiko de la tirano, diris al li, "Se mi estus tiel richa
kaj pova kiel via regha moshto, mi estus treege felicha!" La tirano
respondis, "Venu al festo che mi, se tio plachas al vi, kaj eltrovu chu
mi devus esti felicha au ne." "Mi venos tre volonte," ekkriis Damoklo,
"kaj mi dankas vian moshton pro tia afableco!" La tirano ghentile
respondis "Ho, estas nenio (="you are welcome")! Nur ne forgesu la
deciditan horon!" Je la ghusta horo Damoklo iris al la festo, kie oni
donis al li seghon flanke de la tirano mem. "Manghu kaj trinku kiom ajn
vi volas," konsilis la tirano, "kaj poste ni parolos pri la felicheco."
Damoklo tuj konsentis al tia propono, kaj agis lau la permeso tiel
afable donita al li. Manghante bonegan manghajhon, kaj trinkante dolchan
vinon, li tute ne enuis che la festo. Baldau la tirano diris "Rigardu
supren, kaj vidu ghuste kian felichecon mi havas!" Supren rigardinte,
Damoklo ekvidis akran glavon, antaue kashitan al li de kurteno.
Subtenate de unu sola haro, la glavo shajnis kvazau tuj falonta sur la
kapon de Damoklo. "La dioj min helpu!" li ekkriis, forsaltinte de la
tablo. Pro la jhus dirita stranga rakonto, oni ankorau nun nomas la
atendadon por io timeginda, kio shajnas chiam okazonta sed efektive ne
okazas, "la glavo de Damoklo."

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SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The word ostracism comes from the Greek word signifying
"oyster-shell." 2. It has its present meaning because oyster-shells
or pieces of pottery were used for the voting. 3. The story about
Aristeides is interesting, but that about the sword of Damocles is also
interesting. 4. His friend, the Syracusan tyrant, had permitted all
sorts of injustices, against not only barbarians but even Greeks. 5.
His only bidding usually was "Let every inhabitant be sold as a slave!"
6. He thought "Let me make one sole empire out of Africa, Italy and
Sicily!" 7. Damocles said to him "Your royal highness ought to be very
happy!" 8. The tyrant answered, "Come to a feast tomorrow, and find
out. I will give you a seat (214, b) beside me." 9. Damocles willingly
consented, and went thither. 10. The tyrant advised "Let us eat and
drink until midnight, if that would be-pleasing to you. Then let us
discuss the problem about happiness." 11. After a few hours Damocles
heard a slight sound over his head, and the tyrant said to him, "Look
up and you will see what kind of happiness mine is." 12. "Heaven defend
me!" exclaimed Damocles, catching sight of a sharp sword hanging by a
single (sole) hair.
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